Presentation on theme: "The Ancient River Valley Civilizations of"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Ancient River Valley Civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt
2 Geography: Mesopotamia means “Land between two rivers” The Tigrisand EuphratesRivers providedrich soil andwater for farming.Flooding wasUnpredictable.The ZagrosMountains andthe Syrian Desertprovided protectionfrom invaders.The Fertile Crescent is the arc of fertile land between the Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf.
5 Geography - EgyptThe Nile flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea.The fertile marshy land of lower Egypt is called the Nile River Delta. This area of rich soil was good for farming.Flooding was predictable.The deserts provided protection from invaders.The lower part of the river became known as Lower Egypt.
6 The Nile: The longest river in the world at 4,100 miles long.
9 GeographyHail to thee, O Nile! Who manifests thyself over this land, and comes to give life to Egypt!Excerpt from Hymn to the NileTalk to your partner for 30 seconds about this excerpt. Why is the Nile the most important geographic feature to Egyptian civilization?
10 The river valleys were the “Cradles of Civilization.” What do you think that means?They provided the baby civilizations what they needed to grow.Each civilization made major contributions to social, political and economicprogress.
11 Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent PoliticalMesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent
12 What were the functions of these ancient governments? Mesopotamia- PoliticalFirst ruled by kings as independent city states, later, Mesopotamia would be ruled as empires. What is an empire? What factors would lead one civilization to conquer another?These empires would develop from within Mesopotamia.AkkadianBabylonianAssyrianNeobabylonianWhat were the functions of these ancient governments?
13 Around 3100 BCE, the first dynasty arose when upper Political - EgyptAround 3100 BCE, the first dynasty arose when upperand lower Egypt were united into a single kingdom. The capital was Memphis.Upper Lower UnitedEgypt Egypt dynasty
14 Political - Egypt, Continued Strong kings or pharaohs and bureaucratic governments continued a period of continuity and unity.Dynasties orhereditary rule wascommon.
15 What is the impact of a strong ruler and government on a civilization? Brainstorm this with your neighbor.
16 Egypt - Political, continued Strong Centralized Government = BureaucracyPeace and prosperity, strong economy, and a stable, ordered society followed.Features of Egypt’s Political system:Divine rule: Pharaohs were god-kingsPharaohs were absolute rulers.The bureaucracy consisted of many departments to carry out the functions of government.Religious rule = theocracy
17 Economy of Mesopotamia Based primarily on agriculture – 90 percent of the people were farmers.But, evidence of trade along rivers, and with Egypt.Artifacts revealed metal work in bronze, gold and copper
18 Economic- Egypt Egyptians farmed along the narrow strips of land bordering the Nile Rivertraded along the Nile (Nubia) and into MesopotamiaPaid taxes to the Pharaoh in the form of crops and forced labor on building projectsMade paper from papyrusLinen clothing
19 EconomicTrade goods included gold, ivory, cattle, granite blocks, paper and linen
20 Religion - Mesopotamia They were POLYTHEISTIC. What does this mean?Constructed huge pyramids, called Ziggurats.Sumerians had a negative view of the afterlife where their souls would wanderin the land of no return.
21 Religion – continued - Mesopotamia Rulers were believed to be chosen by gods. Theocracy - rule by a religious authority.Earliest rulers in Mesopotamia were priests.Can you name a modern-day theocracy?
22 Afterlife was important – soul needed to be judged and then reconnected with the body. Wonderful afterlife awaited filled with pleasures of life.The body had to be recognized so it was mummified.Worldly goods such as jewelry, pottery and gold were buried with the body to be enjoyed in the afterlife.Religion- Egypt
23 Religion - EgyptThe Egyptians were polytheistic – there were 2,000 gods and goddessesSun god Re was very important as were river and land deities, Osiris (god of the dead), Isis and Horus.IsisOsirisHorus
24 Pyramids were built as the final resting place for Religion - EgyptPyramids were built as the final resting place forPharaohs who, according to Egyptian beliefs, would rule again through their spirit in the afterlife.
25 Sumerian Society ( Mesopotamia) Priests and KingsScribesWealthy merchantsCommonersSlaves
26 Mesopotamian Society - Continued Why were priests in the upper classes of society?Priests communicated and made offerings to the gods. Since the gods controlled the people’s fate, priests, were very important.Sumerian women had more rights than women in later civilizations but it is believed that they were not educated.
27 Egyptian SocietyPharaoh, queen, royal familyVizier, landowners, government officialspriests, army commanders, scribesMerchants, artisansPeasant farmersUnskilled laborerslater, slaves. The largestgroup of people fellinto this category.Egyptians could move up or down in society and slaves could buy their freedom. To win the highest positions, one needed to be able to read and write.
28 Egyptian Society continued Women had almost as many rights as men.They could own and trade property, were allowed to divorce and there were one or two women who served as Pharaohs.It is believed that women could not read or write.Hatsepshut
29 Egyptian society enjoyed stability and cultural continuity because the kingdom was united andbecause of its political stability over longperiods of time.
30 Intellectual - Mesopotamia Cuneiform was the first written language.It was made using clay and a stylus, and has wedge-shaped charactersIts characters are based on pictograms
31 Intellectual – Continued - Mesopotamia More Cuneiform:
32 Intellectual – Continued - Mesopotamia Two important written documents come from Mesopotamia:1. The Epic of Gilgamesh2. Hammurabi’s CodeBoth were written in Cuneiformand translated.
33 Intellectual - Mesopotamia The Epic of Gilgamesh is possibly the oldest story ever written. It was foundon clay tablets and tells the story of a king (Gilgamesh) and a man (Enkidu) whofight an evil God named Humbaba. The man is mortally wounded and Gilgamesh realizes that men are not immortal.
34 is the code of laws established By Hammurabi of Babylon Intellectual - MesopotamiaThe Code of Hammurabiis the code of laws establishedBy Hammurabi of BabylonWhen he conquered allOf Mesopotamia.What might we learn aboutMesopotamia by lookingat its laws? Think P.E.R.S.I.A. G. ?
35 Hammurabi’s Code The laws were carved onto a Intellectual - MesopotamiaHammurabi’s CodeThe laws were carved onto abasalt (stone) slab called a stele.It included laws for commerceHarsh punishments including, “an eye for an eye”It contained different rules for different social classesIt even set forth rules and punishments for marriage
36 Intellectual - EgyptThe Egyptians developed a pictographic language called hieroglyphics. First written on stone or clay, the Egyptians later developed a paper-like productcalled Papyrus. It came from reeds that grew in the Nile River delta.
40 Achievements - Mesopotamia PlowBronze WeaponsIrrigation System
41 Accurate measurement of angles would be necessary for Achievements - EgyptEgyptians were skilled mathematicians. They used a number system andgeometry. Why would these be useful to the Egyptians?Accurate measurement of angles would be necessary forbuilding the pyramids
42 Achievements - Egypt - continued The Egyptians would develop a 365-day calendar that was comprised of 12 months, each comprised of 30 days with one 5-day celebration.Why would the Egyptians need a calendar?They needed to know when to plant crops which was based on regular flooding of the Nile. The floods came each year at the same time. As the floods receded, rich silt was left behind which made the soil very fertile –the perfect time for planting crops.
43 Other Achievements - Egypt: Medicine – The Egyptians were advanced in developing medicines, performing surgery and in setting broken bones.