Presentation on theme: "Lesson 8 November 17 th, 2010. The phenomenon of refraction had been observed for centuries, but it was not until 1621 that its cause was stated mathematically."— Presentation transcript:
The phenomenon of refraction had been observed for centuries, but it was not until 1621 that its cause was stated mathematically.
Willebrord Snell (1591–1626) was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician who is credited with identifying the exact relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction.
Snell’s law is a formula that uses values for the index of refraction to calculate the new angle that a ray will take as a beam of light strikes the interface between two media.
If you call the indices of refraction of the two media n 1 and n 2 and call the angles of incidence and the angle of refraction θ 1 and θ 2, then the formula for Snell’s law is: n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2
When light passes from air into water at an angle of 60° from the normal, what is the angle of refraction? GIndex of refraction of air n 1 = 1.00 Index of refraction of water n 2 = 1.33 Angle of incidence Ѳ 1 = 60° S sinθ 2 = 1.00 x sin60° 1.33 sinθ 2 = 0.6511 θ 2 = 40.62° R Angle of refraction = Ѳ 2 PTherefore, the angle of refraction is 41 degrees. A n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2 sinθ 2 = n 1 sinθ 1 n 2
In an experiment, a block of cubic zirconium is placed in water. A laser beam is passed from the water through the cubic zirconium. The angle of incidence is 50°, and the angle of refraction is 27°. What is the index of refraction of the cubic zirconium? GIndex of refraction is 1.33 Angle incidence Ѳ 1 = 50° Angle of refraction Ѳ 1 = 27° S n 2 = 1.33 x sin 50° sin 27° = 2.244 RIndex of refraction = n 2 PTherefore, the index of refraction of the cubic zirconium is 2.2 A n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2 n 2 = n 1 sin Ѳ 1 sin Ѳ 2
1. When light passes from air into water at an angle of 30° from the normal, what is the angle of refraction? 2. When light passes from water into diamond at an angle of 45° from the normal, what is the angle of refraction? 3. The refractive index of the lens in a human eye is 1.41. If a ray of light goes from the air into the lens at an angle of 55.0°, what is the angle of refraction?
1. A ray of light approaches a jar of honey at an angle of 30.0°. If the angle of refraction is 19.5°, what is the refractive index of honey? 2. A block of amber is placed in water, and a laser beam travels from the water through the amber. The angle of incidence is 35° while the angle of refraction is 24°. What is the index of refraction of amber? 3. A red laser beam travels from flint glass into lemon oil. The angle of incidence is 40.0° and the angle of refraction is 44.4°. What is the refractive index of lemon oil?
Sometimes, such as in the case of fibre optics, light does not pass from one medium to another but stays within the medium.
In total internal reflection, light reflects completely off the inside wall of a denser medium (higher index of refraction) rather than passing through the wall into a less dense medium (lower index of refraction).
Recall that when light passes from a denser material, such as water, into a less dense medium, such as air, the light refracts away from the normal.
As the angle of incidence increases, the angle of refraction increases. At a certain angle, called the critical angle, the refracted ray of light follows a path exactly along the surface of the water. Even though the light refracts, it does not leave the water. In a way, the light is “trapped” inside the water
When light crosses a boundary between materials with different indices, the light beam will be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected.