2 IPC 9.BRelate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity.
3 In the example above, the salt (NaCl) separates into ions which become dissolved in the water. The polar nature of water molecules allows them to easily pull ions into solution.
4 Ions in solution can change the properties of the solution. Electrolyte – with ionsConducts electricityNon-electrolyte – without ionsDoes not conduct electricity
5 An ACID is any chemical substance that produces and donates hydrogen ions (H+) into the solution A BASE is any chemical substance that produces and donates a hydroxide ion (OH-) into the solution
6 Sometimes a Basic substance is said to be alkaline.
7 pH measures H+ ions in solution High H+ConcentrationLow OH-Low H+ConcentrationHigh OH-Equal H+ and OH-
8 Measuring pH pH can be measured with several different tools: Litmus paper (red or blue)pH paperpH meterIndicators
9 IPC 9.DDemonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent
10 Solubility = Dissolvability To increase the amount of a solid, like sugar, that can be dissolved in a liquidCrush the solid into smaller particlesHeat the liquidStir the liquid
11 All of these can affect the rate at which a solid dissolves in water except — A decreasing air pressureB stirring the waterC increasing the temperature of the waterD using larger crystals of the solid
12 What are the 3 ways to increase the rate at which a solid dissolves? A 0.2 g crystal of gypsum dissolves very slowly in 100 mL of water while the water is stirred. Which of these would cause the gypsum to dissolve faster?F Decreasing the water temperatureG Stopping the stirringH Lowering the air pressureJ Crushing the crystalWhat are the 3 ways to increase the rate at which a solid dissolves?Heat it!Crush it!Stir it!ANSWER?J
13 How much solute will dissolve? A solubility curve shows the amount of each solute that will dissolve in 100g H20 at each temperature.Saturated is on the line.Unsaturated is below the line.Supersaturated is above the line.
14 At which temperature do KBr and KNO3 have the same solubility? A 27°CB 48°CC 65°CD 80°C
15 Pressure and Solubility of Gasses The higher the pressure above a liquid, the more gas can be dissolved in the liquid.
16 Try this one! 49 According to the graph, about how much hemoglobin would be saturated at an O2pressure of 7.3 kPa?A 32%B 67%C 89%D 92%
17 You can dissolve more gas in a cold liquid than a hot liquid!