Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Essay The persuasive essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. A clear, concise,"— Presentation transcript:
Persuasive Essay The persuasive essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. Question of Fact, Question of Value, Question of Policy Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion. Body paragraphs that include evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).
Persuasive Essay Pathos(emotion), ethos(ethics), logos(logic) Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, Refutation of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.
[REF-YOO-TEY-SHUHN] NOUN 1. The act or process of refuting or disproving, or the state of being refuted; 2. Proof of falsehood or error; 3. The overthrowing of an argument, opinion, testimony, doctrine, or theory, by argument or countervailing proof. Refutation
How to Write a Refutation Paragraph 1. Look at the evidence for the other point of view (con) to your essay question. a. Choose a strong con argument that you can counter b. Consider the points that will support your side and what evidence or details you can offer. c. Do not merely repeat the arguments you used in the rest of your essay.
How to Write a Refutation Paragraph 2. Choose the one that best suits the evidence and support for your refutation. There are three methods to refute an argument: A. Show that the other side's arguments are incorrect. B. Show that the other arguments are irrelevant (don't relate to the topic) C. Show that the other side's arguments, although true and relevant, are not enough. (Your arguments are more significant and sufficient)
How to Write a Refutation Paragraph Usually hard to find incorrect facts or irrelevant arguments in opposition Admit that the other side has good arguments. Show that the important con arguments are not as strong as your arguments. This paragraph must still support your position!
How to Write a Refutation Paragraph: Patterns Begin with signal words which alert the reader to the fact that the ideas you are presenting are not yours. “While some supporters claim …” “While those opposed to… argue …” This counter argument should be a strong one from the other side… does not support your point of view followed by the evidence or reasoning used to support it.
Use a signal phrase or word to tell your readers that you are now presenting your POV (the“yeah, but …..” ): …”However", "Nevertheless", "While this may be true"… "This is outweighed by“ Give reasons why they should not be convinced by the other side's argument. Must back this up by giving reason(s) to support your POV, specific details and support. should be new reason(s) that directly address the con arguments should not only be repetitions of the same reasons you used to support your thesis in the body paragraphs. How to Write a Refutation Paragraph: Patterns
“Are native English speakers the best English teachers?” The Pro point of view is yes they do: The refutation paragraph might begin: “Those who do not think that native speakers are the best teachers claim that anyone who has learned a language as a child can not understand the difficulties in learning it. Native speakers may know how to speak the language, but they do not understand the grammar very well. However…” (this is the yeah, but….and is the topic sentence of this paragraph) - followed by reasons not to be swayed by this argument complete with supporting details and explanations as needed. Possible points to use to refute this argument: most English teachers have learned another language so understand the difficulty of learning language from a student's point of view if grammar can be learned through study then native speakers who are good English-as-another-language teachers can learn to understand grammar as well as their non-native speaking counterparts How to Write a Refutation Paragraph: Example: Yes
“Are native English speakers the best English teachers?” The Pro point of view is no they do not: The refutation paragraph might begin: “Some supporters of the notion that native speakers are the best English teachers claim that only a native speaker can teach spoken forms properly because they do not have an accent. This may be true if accent is only regarded as the influence of a different mother language, but this point of view does not take into account…” Possible points to use to refute this argument: many accents and varieties of English most English-as-another-language speakers won’t be speaking with native speakers so learning understand non-native accents is beneficial How to Write a Refutation Paragraph: Example: No
How to Write a Refutation Paragraph: Summary “Their” argument (the con side) is presented followed by reasons that this argument(s) isn’t as valid as the writer’s point of view on the same question. is the topic sentence and the paragraph is developed in the same way that all paragraphs are. It does not simply present the other side.