If a person suffering from asthma has determined that higher altitudes decrease symptoms, which source would be BEST for determining specific altitudes for various locations? Excerpt from: Asthma: Information from the CDC 1 Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It is the most common long-term disease of children. It causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing. 2 We know that family history contributes to susceptibility, but in most cases we don’t know what causes asthma to develop, and we don’t know how to cure asthma. You can control your asthma by knowing the warning signs of an attack, avoiding things that trigger an attack, and following the advice of your doctor. A) Almanac B) Thesaurus C) Dictionary D) Reader's Guide
A) Almanac An almanac is the best source for facts, figures and dates
Which of these is the BEST way to rewrite the sentence in line 22? Excerpt from: English Report: A Powerful Poet Camille Roberts 22 Dunbar did not despair and he continued to write doggedly. A)He continued to write doggedly, he did not despair. B)He continued to write doggedly and he did not despair. C)Dunbar did not despair he continued to write doggedly. D)Dunbar did not despair; he continued to write doggedly.
D) Dunbar did not despair; he continued to write doggedly. Semi colons connect 2 independent clauses.
Which of these citations is correct? A) Jacobs, Richard. Applying for Federal and State Grants B) Wolfe, Emily. "Smith County to Receive Government Grant." 13 May C) Greene, Mario. Journal of Government Resources. 5.3 (2007) 159–175. D) Neilson, Mia. "Creating a Charity." Journal of Philanthropy. 9 (2009) 23–35. D) Neilson, Mia. "Creating a Charity." Journal of Philanthropy. 9 (2009) 23–35. All parts of the citation are present: author, title, journal name, volume, year and pages.
Week 2 Freshman Academy
There may be a mistake in the way the sentence is written. If you find a mistake, choose the answer that corrects the mistake. If there is no mistake, choose 'Correct as is.' Excerpt from: Norse Mythology Part C Kate McConnaughey (22) They broke his body in pieces and made a planet. A) Correct as is. B) (22) They broke his body in peaces and made a planet. C) (22) They broke his body in pieces and make a planet. D) (22) They will break his body in pieces and make a planet. A) Correct as is. The “peaces” is spelled wrong/ “broke” and “made” correct verb tense
Choose the sentence that shows correct semicolon usage. A) I like; swimming, hiking, and camping. B) Swimming is my favorite form of exercise; it gives me energy. C) I am going swimming; and then I will lie in the sun and relax. D) Today I plan to go swimming; which is one of my favorite activities.
When children are taken from their mothers at an early age, they become? Excerpt from: The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant--before I knew her as my mother. It is a common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a very early age. Frequently, before the child has reached its twelfth month, its mother is taken from it, and hired out on some farm a considerable distance off, and the child is placed under the care of an old woman, too old for field labor. For what this separation is done, I do not know, unless it be to hinder the development of the child's affection toward its mother, and to blunt and destroy the natural affection of the mother for the child. This is the inevitable result. A) weak and lazy. B) better workers. C) miserable and rude. D) indifferent to their mother’s affection.
Week 3 Freshman Academy
In paragraph 1, the word appeal means Excerpt from: Review of Sleeping Upside-Down Lee Washington 1 A backyard fruit bat watches, “Swinging mallets! Spinning balls in a host of colors! A croquet set straight from the fairest of three-dollar garage sales.” The bat, of course, has very poor eyesight. The bat tries to imagine happy backyard scenes through its blurry vision. Descriptions written by a bat only add to the appeal of Tim Ranch’s latest novel, Sleeping Upside-Down. A) charm. B) confusion. C) peculiarity. D) offensiveness. A) charm
Which underlined section requires a colon? When my father and I decided to take a motorcycle trip from Georgia to Maine we spent a great deal of time in preparation. First, we needed to chart a course and plot it on a map. Then, we needed to make a list of essential items to bring on the trip My list included some of the following items leather gloves, boots, jeans, a leather jacket, goggles and, of course, a map. A) trip: My B) Maine: we C) and: plot D) items: leather
Which sentence is written using formal language? A) The preps always sit over at that table. B) Samantha has an appointment early Monday morning. C) That was a real bogus tale Charlie told the teacher. D) I don't think Tim will be here today, he's playing hookie.
Week 4 Freshman Academy
According to the author, what effect do the mounds MOSTLY have on current society? The Mounds Today - Elizabeth Kibler The Etowah mounds give scientists a wonderful view of life in America before recorded history. The state of Georgia currently owns the historic site, which many visitors enjoy each year. Future research at the mounds may uncover even more information about American history. A) The mounds tell researchers about the Creek tribe. B) The mounds give information about American history. C) The mounds give tourists a place to visit in Georgia. D) The mounds show people how to build ditches for protection.
Which explains the BEST way to organize the reasons for this claim? CLAIM: The county council has done the community a disservice by mishandling money, focusing on frivolous causes, and failing to listen to community concerns. A) Provide your carefully considered opinions as well as general opinions from a many sources; be sure to cite your sources correctly. B) Provide evidence of mishandling funds, an example of community concerns being ignored, and testimony about the time spent on frivolous causes. C) Consider potential counterclaims and counterarguments to demonstrate your ability to defend your claim from opposing viewpoints. D) Keep your supporting evidence and reasons general so that a variety of evidence will convincingly support your claim.
What is the BEST definition for the word insatiable, as it is used in section 8? Excerpt from: Newton Minow's Speech to National Association of Broadcasters speech by Newton Minow 8 Why is so much of television so bad? I have heard many answers: demands of your advertisers; competition for ever higher ratings; the need always to attract a mass audience; the high cost of television programs; the insatiable appetite for programming material—these are some of them. Unquestionably these are tough problems not susceptible to easy answers. A) unable to correct B) not able to repair C) unworthy of attention D) impossible to satisfy
Week 5 Freshman Academy
While presenting a persuasive speech encouraging people to try sky diving, you realize your audience is not paying attention because ________________. A) They nod and comment to each other about how they might try to sky dive. B) They are looking away or focusing on something in their laps or at their feet. C) They are intently looking at your power point slides of your sky diving experience. D) They gasp with excitement when you tell them you have made 35 jumps from an airplane.
Which organizational method is used to present the information in the passage? Excerpt from: Marsupials by Carole Jenkins Tasmania is an island south of Australia and is the home of two marsupials the wombat and the Tasmanian devil. Some people think that wombats make good pets. They are about three feet long and live in borrows. As nocturnal vegetarians, they feed at night on leaves, roots, and vegetables. Tasmanian devils, on the other hand, are savage and do not make good pets. They resemble small bears, and they kill and eat other animals. A) spatial order B) cause and effect C) chronological order D) compare and contrast D) Compare and Contrast
Which term is a related word of hub as it is used in the passage? Excerpt from: The River Thames by Roberto Barerra Having the Thames flow through the city allowed trade ships from around the world to come and go with ease, making London the major transportation hub of England for centuries. A) center B) highlight C) seed D) town A) center
Week 6 Freshman Academy
Choose the answer that is the most effective substitute for the underlined part of the sentence. If no substitute is necessary, choose ‘Leave as is.’ Good test-taking skills include reading each question carefully, thinking through each answer choice, and carefully marking the correct answer on the answer sheet. A) Leave as is. B) reading each question carefully, thinking through each answer choice, and carefully mark the correct answer on the answer sheet C) reading each question carefully, think through each answer choice, and carefully marking the correct answer on the answer sheet D) to read each question carefully, thinking through each answer choice, and carefully marking the correct answer on the answer sheet A) Leave as is - the items in the series are presented in parallel grammatical form. The test-taking skills (reading, thinking, marking) all end in ing.
What is the main purpose of this passage? Raise the Driving Age to Eighteen! After reading Mr. J. Brown's letter, dated August 15, I feel compelled to write and let your readers know how I feel about raising the driving age from 16 to 18. Teenagers should not be allowed to drive until they are 18. Only high school graduates should be given a driver's license, and only after successfully completing a driver's education class during high school. Right now, 15 year-olds can get a practice permit and try for their license at 16. Eighteen is a better age. At 18, people are more mature and better able to make mature decisions. Not all 18 year-olds are mature, but the majority of them are. At least we are more mature than 15 year-olds. A)to warn young drivers to be careful when they drive B)to convince readers to support raising the driving age C)to persuade teens to take driver's ed before getting a license. D)to support insurance claims against teens who get into accidents
Which excerpt from a student essay below is an example of plagiarism? A) Alan Moore claimed that he was giving up writing for comics because he had been converted to religion of a serpent god called Glycon. B) Writer Jonah Sinnott quoted Moore's retirement announcement that claimed Moore was leaving comics not to rest but to become a "magician" (219). C) Much to the comic book publishing world's astonishment, Moore announced he was leaving writing comics to "become a full time magician" (Sinnott 219). D) Alan Moore decided upon his fortieth birthday to give up writing comics and pursue a body of knowledge of more interest to him: magic (Sinnott 219). An excerpt from page 219 of the book, Off to See the Wizard: A Biography of Alan Moore by Jonah Sinnott: "It was on his fortieth birthday that the famed comic book retiree decided to make an announcement that rocked the world of comics publishing: "I will no longer be writing comic books," said Alan Moore in one of his typically cryptic public statements, "I am retiring to become a full-time magician. Specifically, I have been converted to the religion of Glycon the Serpent God and want to pursue new avenues of knowledge that have been opened up to me recently through some intense, supernatural experiences.”
A) Alan Moore claimed that he was giving up writing for comics because he had been converted to religion of a serpent god called Glycon. No citation is given. Use MLA format
Week 7 The Hero’s Journey
Which transition word or phrase BEST completes the sentence? My math teacher, Mr. Johansen, became very ill during class; ____________ a substitute was called in to finish the day. A) because B) therefore C) for example D) in other words B) therefore
Which source would provide the most relevant and reliable information about the Exxon oil spill of 1989? A)World Book Encyclopedia Year Book, 2005 B)California newspaper article, "Saving Wildlife During Oil Spills" C)Section 133 of California Boating Laws: Discharging oil upon navigable waters D)Research Journal article, "The Costliest Oil Spill of Our Time: The Exxon Spill of 1989"
D) Research Journal article, "The Costliest Oil Spill of Our Time: The Exxon Spill of 1989” Most specific (relevant) When researching, try to narrow your search
Use the strategy of rereading to determine the BEST definition for lucid (line 12). Excerpt from: That Old Straw Sojourner by David Matherne It saw with lucid eyes inhuman, divine 12 The tired man grew older, while his boy grew wise. Some said, ‘So tragic,’ the son said, ‘Fate’ When the lightning left a char on the elder’s pate 15 And they both did loving before too late. That hat...his special bequest. A) lost B) tired C) clear D) confused C) Clear “It” sees the old man and young man, their change over time. A “divine” or god-like view would not be confused, tired or lost, but clear.
Week 8 The Hero’s Journey
What is the MOST LIKELY reason the recipe includes no oven temperature? Excerpt from: Recipes Tried and True - Bird's Nest Pudding First Presbyterian Ladies’ Aide BIRDS NEST PUDDING. MRS. JOHN KISHLER. Pare six or eight large good cooking apples; remove the core by cutting from the end into the middle, so as to leave the apple whole; place them in a deep pie dish, as near together as they can stand, with the opening upward. Make a thin batter, using one quart of milk, three eggs, and sufficient flour; pour this into the dish around the apples and into the cavities. Bake in a quick oven. Serve with butter and sugar. A) The pudding is served cold. B) The author forgot to include it. C) There is no correct temperature. D) The reader is expected to know what to do.
This is written for an experienced cook. They should know the meaning of “quick oven,” “pare,” “sufficient flour.” They should also know how to tell when the dish is done.
Which is a COMPOUND sentence? A) While many senior citizens are involved in activities such as church groups and volunteer organizations, others remain isolated from the community. B) So, in conclusion, I’m asking all of you to think about the positive ways that this project will benefit our community and show your support for this initiative in November. C) Giving our seniors a place to gather and socialize will honor their lifelong commitment to this community, and it’s the least we can do to thank them for their years of service. D) A senior citizens center affords older community member the opportunity for daily social interaction, allowing them to maintain healthy and vibrant relationships outside the home.
C) Giving our seniors a place to gather and socialize will honor their lifelong commitment to this community, and it’s the least we can do to thank them for their years of service. 2 Independent clauses – “, and” is a good clue! All the others are complex, containing dependent clauses
Which is expressed with the MOST precise language? A) She will love her dog forever and ever. B) My appointment is at 3:00 p.m. in the afternoon. C) Any topic you choose for research must be manageable. D) There are seven students who have applied for the art class. D) There are seven students who have applied for the art class “forever and ever” and “any topic” are broad and vague. “p.m.” and “in the afternoon” are redundant (repetitive.)
Week 9 The Hero’s Journey
Unlike Aesop's fables, which are meant to teach moral lessons about human behavior, the purpose of expository writing is to A)create. B)entertain. C)inform. D)persuade.
Which is MOST LIKELY the reason that the author uses second person pronouns in the book review? Excerpt from:” H. Vondermoot Strikes Again With Cryptic Inducement” by Mary McCormick Vondermoot creates another eerie masterpiece in Cryptic Inducement. Perhaps the finest scene in the novel is the ending, which I won’t ruin for you. I’ll merely warn you to beware, for Cryptic Inducement is a real nail–biter up until the very last page. Some favorite characters of past Evasion books make appearances throughout the novel—most notably Delilah Lehman, the protagonist of Vondermoot’s first novel in the series, Dignified Charade. In Cryptic Inducement, Delilah is married to someone named James. Some speculators think this might be foreshadowing of the main story of the next Evasion book. A) to make the review seem more formal in structure B) to make the author feel appreciation from the readers C) to make the reader believe that the author knows him or her D) to make the reader feel as if the author is speaking to him or her
“you” (2 nd person) is informal and should not be used in a formal setting. Here the author is informal and conversational, and her speech attempts to connect with the audience.
Which sentence makes a claim for an argument about why cats make good pets for elderly people? A) Cats can stay indoors all the time and can be left alone overnight. B) Cats sleep the majority of the day and enjoy cuddling with their owners. C) Cats would be a wonderful pet for elderly people because they require minimal care. D) Cats do not have to be taken for walks and do not have to be played with all the time.
C) Cats would be a wonderful pet for elderly people because they require minimal care. This statement is the claim; all other statements provide evidence to support this claim.
Week 10 Suspense is the Spice of Life
Which of these choices is the BEST topic sentence for this presentation? Jane Addams was born in Cedarville, Illinois, in As the daughter of well-off mill owner, Jane always had her needs cared for. While she traveled through England in her late twenties, she and her friend, Ellen G. Starr, traveled to a house where poor people could sleep, eat, and learn. Inspired by this, Jane and Ellen started a similar establishment, called Hull House, in Chicago, Illinois. People living in the city could get a meal, learn, and rest at Hull House. The founders soon became famous for their work, and their efforts helped many poor people in Chicago. For her work, Jane was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in A) In the early 1900s, many Americans needed help from other people. B) Hull House was a place in Chicago where many poor people found help. C) Jane Addams worked hard to improve the lives of less fortunate people. D) In our country's history, many people have dedicated their lives to helping others. A) In the early 1900s, many Americans needed help from other people.
Why is the title of the source by M.J. Quentin in quotation marks instead of underlined? Quentin, M.J. “Were You Related to a Coal Miner?” Hampton Gazette. 5 January 1999: E8. A) because it is unpublished B) because it is a newspaper article C) because it was quoted in the article D) because it was published before 2000 B) because it is a newspaper article
Choose the word that is spelled correctly and fits BEST in the context of the sentence. Isn't that __________ sister singing on the stage? A) yore B) you C) you're D) your D) your – possessive form
Week 14 Suspense is the Spice of Life
Paragraph 8 reflects which overall theme of Dr. King's civil rights work? Excerpt from: “I Have a Dream” Martin Luther King, Jr. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. A) strong discipline B) expansion of the soul C) nonviolent resistance D) distrust of white people C. Nonviolent resistance King says protesters must "not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence”
You have been asked to read a children’s story to a group of first graders. Which technique will NOT help keep the children’s attention? A) Read in a monotone voice. B) Seat the children very close to you. C) Read dialogue using different voices. D) Show the pictures to all the children. A) Read in a monotone voice.
What is the FIRST thing you should do before planting? Excerpt from: For The Birds by Joanne Quaglia Learning the food habits of the birds you want to attract is important. Many types of trees, shrubs, and plants produce fruits, berries, acorns, and nuts that serve as food sources for birds. Before planting anything, the first thing you should do is talk to an expert at your local garden center to find out which trees, shrubs, and wildflowers are native to your area. This will ensure that anything you plant will adapt well to the climate and will grow nicely to meet birds' needs. A) Talk to an expert about what grows best in your area. B) Determine which birds you want to attract to your yard. C) Decide how many shrubs and trees to plant in your yard. D) Hang several birdfeeders in different areas of your yard. A) Talk to an expert about what grows best in your area.
Week 15 Suspsense is the Spice of Life
Which definition of the word entertain BEST fits the meaning of this sentence? Excerpt from: Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte I resisted all the way: a new thing for me, and a circumstance which greatly strengthened the bad opinion Bessie and Miss Abbot were disposed to entertain of me. A) to go into B) to amuse or thrill C) to bore or make tired D) to think or have in one's mind D) To think or have in one’s mind. Use context clues to see that Bessie and Miss Abbot had a bad opinion of the speaker.
What conclusion can you make from the first paragraph? Excerpt from: Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain THERE was no use in arguing with a person like this. I promptly put such a strain on my memory that by and by even the shoal water and the countless crossing-marks began to stay with me. But the result was just the same. I never could more than get one knotty thing learned before another presented itself. Now I had often seen pilots gazing at the water and pretending to read it as if it were a book; but it was a book that told me nothing. A time came at last, however, when Mr. Bixby seemed to think me far enough advanced to bear a lesson on water-reading. So he began— A) Mr. Bixby dislikes the narrator. B) The narrator is angry with Mr. Bixby. C) The narrator thinks Mr. Bixby is stubborn. D) Mr. Bixby thinks the narrator is stubborn. C. The narrator thinks Mr. Bixby is stubborn. The first sentence the narrator states that "There was no use in arguing with a person like this.”
Which is a compound sentence? A) In reality, exercising can be something as simple as planting seeds or pulling out weeds. B) This magnificent project is funded by a grant from Green Planet Organics as part of their Gardens Grow Great Communities program. C) I’m Mayor Kenndrick, and I’m thrilled to announce the launch of Wessex County’s first community garden here at South Falls High School. D) This program will also help the environment by cutting down on the amount of fruits and vegetables your community imports from large agricultural communities. C) I’m Mayor Kenndrick, and I’m thrilled to announce the launch of Wessex County’s first community garden here at South Falls High School. “, and” is a good clue
Week 16 9 th grade Literature and Composition
Everett’s teacher asked him to write an advertisement using vivid descriptive language. Everett wrote and considered four sentences before turning in his assignment. Which sentence will Everett turn in because it contains vivid descriptive details that meet the teacher’s request? A) PowerSneak sneakers are shoes that feel good, look good, and wear well. B) PowerSneak sneakers are very comfortable shoes that are tough and look good. C) PowerSneak sneakers are soft shoes that wear very well and make you look okay. D) PowerSneak sneakers are comfortable, durable shoes that make you look stylish.
This sentence contains vivid words, such as “stylish,” “durable,” and “comfortable.” The other sentences simply say “good” or “well.”
Which choice would make the underlined section parallel in structure to the rest of the sentence? The real issue the legislature needs to address is what programs deserve to be funded, the initiatives to cut, and how they will fund the additional requests. A) cutting certain initiatives B) which initiatives should be cut C) the initiatives that will be cut D) determining how to cut certain initiatives B) which initiatives should be cut It most closely follows the pattern of adv., noun, verb
Where is the BEST place to add this information? “Favorites include turf grass, bamboo, sweet grass, and sweet clover.” Wild sheep certainly are interesting animals. They can exist on mountain tops, rugged mountain slopes, and in parts of deserts. Their hooves are curved like a suction cup to help them climb steep, rocky places. Many people think they have wool, but wild sheep have hair that is short and coarse. The most unusual thing about wild sheep is that they have four stomachs! They eat mostly grasses, bushes, and herbs. A) after sentence 2 B) after sentence 3 C) after sentence 5 D) after sentence 6
D. After sentence 6 The BEST place to add this information is after sentence 6 because sentence 6 is about the foods eaten by wild sheep. The additional detail gives some specific types of food.
Week 17 Love, Life and Darkness
Which BEST identifies the resource David should use? David is researching Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. He plans to contact Shakespeare expert, Dr. Lydia Robson, PhD. A) a phone book B) an address C) an electronic text D) a database of interviews
Which statement is general rather than specific? Marian’s remarkable life story has always been an inspiration to me. She was born in Philadelphia, the oldest of three girls. After her father passed, Marian’s mother scrubbed floors and laundered clothes to sustain her family. Marian started singing in the Union Baptist church choir at age six and even taught herself how to play piano. By age thirteen, she was performing in other churches for five dollars a show to help the family. Her church helped Marian by raising money for her vocal lessons. The Philadelphia Choral Society held a benefit concert to raise the money for Marian to study with famous contralto Agnes Reifsnyder for two years. Next thing you know, everything changed. Marian was soon singing at New York’s Carnegie Hall and touring Europe to sing for royalty! A) “Marian Anderson was one of my favorite singers.” B) “Next thing you know, everything changed for Marian.” C) “She was born in Philadelphia, the oldest of three girls.” D) “Marian’s remarkable life story was an inspiration to me.”
B. “Next thing you know, everything changed for Marian.” This statement provides no concrete details; not desirable in research because they cannot support any thesis or defend a position
Choose the correct form of the word complicate for this sentence: After spending two hours trouble-shooting the video-projection system, Daphne ran into yet another unexpected ____________. A) complicate B) complicated C) complicates D) Complication
According to section five, what should licensed acupuncturists do BEFORE inserting needles into a patient? Excerpt from: Acupuncture: Help or Hype? By Tracy Wilson 5 Relatively few complications from the use of acupuncture have been reported to the FDA in light of the millions of people treated each year and the number of acupuncture needles used. Still, complications have resulted from inadequate sterilization of needles and from improper delivery of treatments. Practitioners should use a new set of disposable needles taken from a sealed package for each patient and should swab treatment sites with alcohol or another disinfectant before inserting needles. When not delivered properly, acupuncture can cause serious adverse effects, including infections and punctured organs. A) recycle needles used from a previous patient B) get a signature of approval from the patient C) do a yin-yang balance measurement of the patient D) swab treatment sites with alcohol or another disinfectant
While some of the other choices are indeed good things to do (or very bad things to do), only the correct answer is stated directly in the passage.
In paragraph 9, readers can conclude that crop prices fell and land prices rose because Excerpt from: Sacramento Valley Agriculture Sacramento History Online 9 World War I precipitated the rapid development of trucks and tractors. Farmers increased their production to help feed the armies. After the war, crop prices collapsed and land prices rose. The National Prohibition Amendment in 1919 had a significant impact in the Sacramento Valley. Farmers began to pull out vineyards and convert their land to other crops. The two largest vineyards in the nation (Stanford’s Vina Ranch and the Natomas vineyards south of the American River) disappeared. A) the vineyards were not good farm land. B) no one wanted to live in the Sacramento Valley anymore. C) there was an enormous crop failure due to draught in D) farmer's were no longer growing extra crops to feed soldiers.
The demand for food producing crops diminished when there was no longer soldiers to feed.
Choose the answer that is the most effective substitute for the underlined part of the sentence. If no substitute is necessary, choose ‘Leave as is.’ While Sara was traveling in England; she met an interesting old man. A) in England. She met B) in England, she met C) in England she met D) Leave as is. B) in England, she met The sentence is complex, not compound, so a semi- colon is not needed.
Identify the underlined phrase in the sentence. Waiting for the bus, I ran into my old girlfriend. What an awkward morning! A)gerund phrase B)infinitive phrase C)participle phrase D)prepositional phrase C) participle phrase A gerund phrase will always behave as a noun while a present participle phrase will act as an adjective. In this case, “Waiting for the bus” describes the subjects actions.