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Growth of Russia Mongolian influence Ivan’s Time of Troubles Romanov’s

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Presentation on theme: "Growth of Russia Mongolian influence Ivan’s Time of Troubles Romanov’s"— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth of Russia Mongolian influence Ivan’s Time of Troubles Romanov’s
Western or Not Western

2 The famous St. Basil's Cathedral was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible and built on the edge of Red Square between 1555 and Legend has it that on completion of the church the Tsar ordered the architect, Postnik Yakovlev, to be blinded to prevent him from ever creating anything to rival its beauty again. (He did in fact go on to build another cathedral in Vladimir despite his ocular impediment!) The cathedral was built to commemorate Ivan the Terrible's successful military campaign against the Tartar Mongols in 1552 in the besieged city of Kazan. Victory came on the feast day of the Intercession of the Virgin, so the Tsar chose to name his new church the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Moat, after the moat that ran beside the Kremlin. The church was given the nickname "St. Basil's" after the "holy fool" Basil the Blessed ( ), who was hugely popular at that time with the Muscovites masses and even with Ivan the Terrible himself. St. Basil's was built on the site of the earlier Trinity Cathedral, which at one point gave its name to the neighboring square.

3 Rise and Fall of the Russian Empire
Russia and its Neighbors: An Historical Approach to Contemporary Problems Rise and Fall of the Russian Empire Ancient Peoples and Early Centers ( ) Kievan Rus Novgorod Muscovy Under Mongol Rule – the Golden Horde Rule from the Steppe ( ) Tribute of the boyars The Muscovite Era and Growth of the Russian Empire Impact of the Romanov Family ( ) Revolution and the End of the Monarchy

4 Under Mongol Rule: ( ) Mongol Empire Ghengis Khan The Golden Hoard of the Mongol Empire

5 Territorial Shift Much of the territory added to Russia was Asian
Partially because they wished to create a buffer zone from the Mongolians The political center of Russia shifted from Novgorod and Kiev to the Duchy of Moscow Later under Peter the Great their was a cultural shift to the “window to the west”

6 Impact of Mongolians Military tactics and organization
Development of trade routes. Postal road network Census Fiscal system Eastern influence remained strong well until the 18th century, when Russian rulers made a conscious effort to Westernize their country.

7 The Muscovite Era and Growth of the Russian Empire:
Late 1400s-Early 1500s Ivan III "The Great"

8 The Cossacks Expand Across Siberia: Late 1500s to mid 1600s

9 Impact of shift Russians sent Cossacks to hold the newly acquired land
Cossacks were peasants who migrated to these new areas Trade from China was refocused through Russia

10 Russian progress Ivan III wrested Russia from Mongolian control
Russia was mostly an agrarian civilization (95% until 1800s) The power of the boyars differed from the aristocracy in the west in that they continued to use coercive labor systems and wield power over the serfs with the Bashina and obrok until after 1917 Russian serfdom became hereditary in 1649 Ivan the Great (III) declared that Russia had become the “third Rome” , inheriting the claim from the declining Byzantine Empire (defeat to the Ottoman’s in 1452) Ivan IV (terrible )) tried to solidify Russian authority by controlling the boyars Following his death there was a period of unrest known as the “Time of Troubles” resulting in the Romanov dynasty coming to power It wasn’t until 1770’s until the Pugachev rebellion that there was any dissension Many of the peasants identified their culture and political asperasions with this rebellion

11 Ivan IV "The Terrible" ( ) Ivan killed his son Ivan Fedor the Simple Boris Gudinov

12 Autocrats Michael was the first Romanov
He was able to establish some stability but did not re-establish the autocracy of the emperor or czar He expanded into the Ukraine and re-united Kiev with the rest of Russia He waged a successful war against Poland

13 While others were reforming…
Alexis was able to re-establish the power of the czar by outlawing assemblies of the boyars He also re-organized the Orthodox Church Those who would not reform were called the Old believers and many were exiled to Siberia for their conservative views

14 What was the nature of early Russian expansion under the Ivans
Early expansion focused on central Asia Need to drive Mongols farther from Russia Extended to Ural Mountains on west and Caspian Sea to the south Recruited peasants to migrate to newly conquered territories Served both agricultural and military purposes-Cossacks New territories similar to Western colonialism, became economically dependent on Russia Eliminated independent central Asia as source of nomadic invasions Incorporated many ethnic and religious groups into empire

15 Growth of the Russian Empire: The Romanovs
Peter Romanov "The Great"

16 In what way did Peter the Great reform the economy and government of Russia through Westernization
built up metallurgical and mining industries primary purpose was to make military technology, remain independent of West supplied industries with cheap labor source from serfs. Politics: seized on absolutist forms of government in West organized military along Western lines built navy completed destruction of noble councils provincial governors appointed from center rationalized law codes new tax system installed Basically streamlined the bureaucracy and reorganized the military His wars with Sweden and the Ottoman Empire indicated a shift from Asian expansion

17 Czarina Catherine the Great
Growth of the Russian Empire: The Romanovs Czarina Catherine the Great

18 Focus in the Nineteenth Century: Central Asia and Far East

19 Grand Duchy of Muscovy (Czar Ivan the Terrible - 1547-1584)

20 (Czar Peter the Great- 1682-1725) Western Orientation - St Petersburg

21 Czarina Catherine the Great (1760-1796) Expands south and east


23 Percent of the Population Non-Russian in Russia

24 Peter the Great: Catherine the Great:
In what ways were the policies of Westernization undertaken by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great more appearance than substance Peter the Great: cultural changes only affected elite no attempt to extend reforms to masses economic reforms significant, but no attempt to establish exporting industries, only interested in military technology. Catherine the Great: interested in French Enlightenment, but introduced no meaningful reform along Enlightenment lines no attempt to cure problems of coercive labor system legal system actually made harsher nobility given almost absolute control over masses government lost contact with serfs in return for aristocratic government service.

25 Dominance of the nobility greater than in West
What were the primary differences by the eighteenth century between Russia and the West? Dominance of the nobility greater than in West dependent on increasingly coercive system of serfdom as West was developing different labor patterns by 1649 serfdom was a hereditary caste failure of urbanization lack of substantial merchant class left state in control of capitalizing industrial development remained almost entirely agricultural could not avoid dependence on West.

26 Eastern Europe Triest – Elbe line Weaker centralized governments
Coercive labor systems Hungary – 95% agrarian through 1800s Poland – Partition of Poland

27 Peter the Great’s map

28 Timer Lane’s Empire

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