Presentation on theme: "Growth of Russia Mongolian influence Ivan’s Time of Troubles Romanov’s"— Presentation transcript:
1 Growth of Russia Mongolian influence Ivan’s Time of Troubles Romanov’s Western or Not Western
2 The famous St. Basil's Cathedral was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible and built on the edge of Red Square between 1555 and Legend has it that on completion of the church the Tsar ordered the architect, Postnik Yakovlev, to be blinded to prevent him from ever creating anything to rival its beauty again. (He did in fact go on to build another cathedral in Vladimir despite his ocular impediment!) The cathedral was built to commemorate Ivan the Terrible's successful military campaign against the Tartar Mongols in 1552 in the besieged city of Kazan. Victory came on the feast day of the Intercession of the Virgin, so the Tsar chose to name his new church the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Moat, after the moat that ran beside the Kremlin. The church was given the nickname "St. Basil's" after the "holy fool" Basil the Blessed ( ), who was hugely popular at that time with the Muscovites masses and even with Ivan the Terrible himself. St. Basil's was built on the site of the earlier Trinity Cathedral, which at one point gave its name to the neighboring square.
3 Rise and Fall of the Russian Empire Russia and its Neighbors:An Historical Approach to Contemporary ProblemsRise and Fall of the Russian EmpireAncient Peoples and Early Centers ( )Kievan RusNovgorodMuscovyUnder Mongol Rule – the Golden HordeRule from the Steppe ( )Tribute of the boyarsThe Muscovite Era and Growth of the Russian EmpireImpact of the Romanov Family ( )Revolution and the End of the Monarchy
4 Under Mongol Rule:( )Mongol EmpireGhengis KhanThe Golden Hoard of the Mongol Empire
5 Territorial Shift Much of the territory added to Russia was Asian Partially because they wished to create a buffer zone from the MongoliansThe political center of Russia shifted from Novgorod and Kiev to the Duchy of MoscowLater under Peter the Great their was a cultural shift to the “window to the west”
6 Impact of Mongolians Military tactics and organization Development of trade routes.Postal road networkCensusFiscal systemEastern influence remained strong well until the 18th century, when Russian rulers made a conscious effort to Westernize their country.
7 The Muscovite Era and Growth of the Russian Empire: Late 1400s-Early 1500sIvan III "The Great"
8 The Cossacks Expand Across Siberia: Late 1500s to mid 1600s
9 Impact of shift Russians sent Cossacks to hold the newly acquired land Cossacks were peasants who migrated to these new areasTrade from China was refocused through Russia
10 Russian progress Ivan III wrested Russia from Mongolian control Russia was mostly an agrarian civilization (95% until 1800s)The power of the boyars differed from the aristocracy in the west in that they continued to use coercive labor systems and wield power over the serfs with the Bashina and obrok until after 1917Russian serfdom became hereditary in 1649Ivan the Great (III) declared that Russia had become the “third Rome” , inheriting the claim from the declining Byzantine Empire (defeat to the Ottoman’s in 1452)Ivan IV (terrible )) tried to solidify Russian authority by controlling the boyarsFollowing his death there was a period of unrest known as the “Time of Troubles” resulting in the Romanov dynasty coming to powerIt wasn’t until 1770’s until the Pugachev rebellion that there was any dissensionMany of the peasants identified their culture and political asperasions with this rebellion
11 Ivan IV "The Terrible"( )Ivan killed his son IvanFedor the SimpleBoris Gudinov
12 Autocrats Michael was the first Romanov He was able to establish some stability but did not re-establish the autocracy of the emperor or czarHe expanded into the Ukraine and re-united Kiev with the rest of RussiaHe waged a successful war against Poland
13 While others were reforming… Alexis was able to re-establish the power of the czar by outlawing assemblies of the boyarsHe also re-organized the Orthodox ChurchThose who would not reform were called the Old believers and many were exiled to Siberia for their conservative views
14 What was the nature of early Russian expansion under the Ivans Early expansion focused on central AsiaNeed to drive Mongols farther from RussiaExtended to Ural Mountains on west and Caspian Sea to the southRecruited peasants to migrate to newly conquered territoriesServed both agricultural and military purposes-CossacksNew territories similar to Western colonialism, became economically dependent on RussiaEliminated independent central Asia as source of nomadic invasionsIncorporated many ethnic and religious groups into empire
15 Growth of the Russian Empire: The Romanovs Peter Romanov"The Great"
16 In what way did Peter the Great reform the economy and government of Russia through Westernization built up metallurgical and mining industriesprimary purpose was to make military technology, remain independent of Westsupplied industries with cheap labor source from serfs.Politics: seized on absolutist forms of government in Westorganized military along Western linesbuilt navycompleted destruction of noble councilsprovincial governors appointed from centerrationalized law codesnew tax system installedBasically streamlined the bureaucracy and reorganized the militaryHis wars with Sweden and the Ottoman Empire indicated a shift from Asian expansion
17 Czarina Catherine the Great Growth of the Russian Empire: The RomanovsCzarina Catherine the Great
18 Focus in the Nineteenth Century: Central Asia and Far East
19 Grand Duchy of Muscovy (Czar Ivan the Terrible - 1547-1584)
20 (Czar Peter the Great- 1682-1725) Western Orientation - St Petersburg
21 Czarina Catherine the Great (1760-1796) Expands south and east
23 Percent of the Population Non-Russian in Russia
24 Peter the Great: Catherine the Great: In what ways were the policies of Westernization undertaken by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great more appearance than substancePeter the Great:cultural changes only affected eliteno attempt to extend reforms to masseseconomic reforms significant, but no attempt to establish exporting industries, only interested in military technology.Catherine the Great:interested in French Enlightenment, but introduced no meaningful reform along Enlightenment linesno attempt to cure problems of coercive labor systemlegal system actually made harshernobility given almost absolute control over massesgovernment lost contact with serfs in return for aristocratic government service.
25 Dominance of the nobility greater than in West What were the primary differences by the eighteenth century between Russia and the West?Dominance of the nobility greater than in Westdependent on increasingly coercive system of serfdom as West was developing different labor patternsby 1649 serfdom was a hereditary castefailure of urbanizationlack of substantial merchant class left state in control of capitalizing industrial developmentremained almost entirely agriculturalcould not avoid dependence on West.
26 Eastern Europe Triest – Elbe line Weaker centralized governments Coercive labor systemsHungary – 95% agrarian through 1800sPoland – Partition of Poland