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Energy Chapter 5 Section 2

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What is Energy? Energy – A scalar quantity that is often understood as the ability for a physical system to produce changes on a different physical system. Units for energy is a “Joule” –The variable for a Joule is a capital “J”

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Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy – The energy of an object due to it motion. Kinetic energy depends upon the object’s velocity and mass. Any mass that is moving has kinetic energy.

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Equation for Kinetic Energy

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Influencing Kinetic Energy Mass and speed both influence the kinetic energy of an object. Which one influences it more?

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Example Problem A car traveling at 50m/s has a mass of 1000kg. Calculate the kinetic energy.

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Example Answer KE = ½mv² = ½ (1000kg) (50m/s) ² =1,250,000 KE = 1,250,000J or 1.25MJ

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Potential Energy Potential Energy – The energy associated with an object due to its position. In other words, potential energy is stored energy that has the potential to do work when the energy is released.

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Different Forms of Potential Energy There are two different forms of potential energy: –Gravitational Potential Energy –Elastic Potential Energy

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Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy – Potential energy associated with an object due to its position relative to the Earth or some other gravitational source.

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Gravitational Potential Energy Equation

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Converting Gravitational Potential Energy into Kinetic Energy Imagine a rock falling off a cliff. As it falls, it gains kinetic energy since it picks up velocity as it falls to the ground below. But where does the kinetic energy come from? It comes from the gravitational potential energy that is associated with the rock’s initial position on the cliff relative to the ground below.

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Origin of Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is a result of an object’s position, so it must be measured relative to some ZERO level. Doesn’t matter where you place the zero level (origin), but it must remain consistent through out the problem.

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Example Problem How much potential energy does a rock have that has a mass of 10kg and is 100m off the ground on top of a cliff?

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Example Problem Answer PE g = mgh =(10kg)(9.8m/s²)(100m) =9800J PE g = 9800J or 9.8KJ

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Elastic Potential Energy Elastic Potential Energy – The potential energy in a stretched or compressed elastic object. –Examples: Springs Rubber bands Shocks

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Relaxed Length of a Spring The length of a spring when no external forces are acting on it is called the relaxed length of a spring. When an external force compresses or stretches a spring, elastic potential energy is stored in the spring.

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Elastic Potential Energy Equation

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Spring Constant Spring Constant – A parameter that expresses how resistant a spring is to being compressed or stretched. For a flexible spring the constant is small and for a stiff spring the constant is large. The units for the spring constant is “N/m”

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Example Problem A child has a rubber band with a length of 0.10m. The child pulls back on the rubber band to a distance of 0.20m. The spring constant of the rubber band is 5 N/m. What is the potential energy with in the rubber band?

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Example Problem Answer PE e = ½kx² = ½ (k) (x f – x i )² = ½ (5 N/m) (0.20m – 0.10m)² = ½ (5 N/m) (0.10m)² =0.025J PE e = 0.025J or 25.0 mJ

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Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy – The sum of kinetic energy and all forms of potential energy. –Example: Any kind of mechanical device –Clocks –Air compressor –Basically anything that has moving pieces… –Doesn’t include electrical, chemical, or heat energy.

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Mechanical Energy Equation ME = KE + ΣPE ME = Mechanical Energy KE = Kinetic Energy ΣPE = The sum of all the potential energy

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Classification of Energy Energy Mechanical KineticPotential Gravitational Elastic Non- mechanical

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