Polymers Poly = many Mer = from meros, meaning parts Long chains of repeating subunits Usually needs 3 conditions: –Pressure –Heat (high temperature) –Catalyst H 2 C = CH 2 Ethylene —CH 2 CH 2 —CH 2 CH 2 —CH 2 CH 2 — Polyethylene
Writing Polymer Formulas Most are alkenes Many have additional alkyl groups Double bonds become single bonds in repeating subunits Poly- prefix added to original name Monomer written in brackets n in bottom corner represents many units C—C n
Addition Polymerization Subunits are added into a single chain Product contains all the atoms of the starting monomers Common examples: –Polyethylene –Polypropylene –Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) –Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) –Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) –Polyacrylate –Polyvinyl acetate
Addition Polymerization: Polyethylene Monomer: ethylene CH 2 =CH 2 Polymer: polyethylene Uses: plastic bags, bottles, insulation, toys Properties: tough, flexible, plastic or rigid C—C n H H
Addition Polymerization: Polypropylene Monomer: propylene CH 2 =CHCH 3 Polymer: polypropylene Uses: carpet, packaging materials, fibers, luggage Properties: tougher and more rigid, chemical resistant C—C n H H H CH 3
Addition Polymerization: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Monomer: vinyl chloride CH 2 =CHCl Polymer: polyvinyl chloride Uses: textiles, plumbing, packaging Properties: tough, flexible or rigid, chemical resistant C—C n H H H Cl
Addition Polymerization: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Monomer: tetrafluoroethylene CF 2 =CF 2 Polymer: polytetrafluoroethylene Uses: coating, gaskets and bearings, electrical insulation Properties: very tough, nonflammable, unreactive C—C n F F
Monomer: acrylate Polymer: polyacrylate Uses: binding agents in detergents, diapers, thickeners Properties: super absorbant, good at binding metals C—C n H H H C = O O – Na Addition Polymerization: Polyacrylate
Monomer: vinyl acetate Polymer: polyvinyl acetate Uses: adhesives, protective coatings, chewing gum resin, paints Properties: rubbery, flexible, non-acidic Addition Polymerization: Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) C—C n H H H C O – C – CH 3 װOװO
Condensation Polymerization Small molecules (usually water) are split out of monomers and they become joined Common examples: –Polyamides (nylon) –Polyesters –Polyurethanes (“foam rubber”)
Condensation Polymerization: Nylon Monomer: 6-carbon carboxylic acid Polymer: nylon (polyamide) Uses: fibers for fabrics (some silk-like, some yarn like wool), hoisery, carpeting Properties: very elastic, fine, strong Image source: www.threadart.com/images/bonded_nylon.jpg Image source: img.alibaba.com/photo/10922619/Men_s_100_Nylo...
Condensation Polymerization: Polyesters Monomers: molecules with alcohol and carboxylic acid functional groups Polymer: Polyester (ester linkages) Uses: beverage bottles, audio and videocassette film, fibers Properties: strong, wrinkle-resistant Image source: www.stillwaterpalladium.com/images/polyester.jpgImage source: www.h2oforyou.com/images/bottles.JPG
Natural Polymers: Rubber Monomer: isoprene Polymer: polyisoprene Uses: tires, balls, packaging Properties: very elastic, soft, pliable C = C n CH 2 CH 3 H
Natural Polymers: Rubber Vulcanization: increasing the strength of rubber Reaction requires 2 conditions: –Heat –Sulfur Polyisoprene chains are cross-linked with sulfur bridges Common uses: car tires, rubber bands, racquetballs
Other Polymers in Your Life Chewing Gum –Gum base Elastomers Resins –Fats –Flavors Sugar Extracts Image source: http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/v37_2_04/article15.shtml
Polymers: What You Should Know 1.What is a polymer? 2.What are the 3 conditions necessary to form a polymer? 3.What is addition polymerization? 4.Name the monomer (write the formula), and give properties and uses of the following polymers: Polyethylene Polypropylene Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Polyacrylate Polyvinyl acetate 5.What is condensation polymerization? 6.Name common polymers formed from condensation polymerization. 7.Name at least 3 natural polymers. 8.Name and write the formula for the monomer of rubber. 9.What is vulcanization? What does it do? What products is it used in?