Presentation on theme: "Contexts of Deviance. A Case Study of Nudism Nudism vs Naturism (vs Everybody Else) This case study advises that: –“Deviance” is not universal –Even “deviants”"— Presentation transcript:
A Case Study of Nudism Nudism vs Naturism (vs Everybody Else) This case study advises that: –“Deviance” is not universal –Even “deviants” have normative standards –Even “deviants” label others deviant
What Accounts for Changes in Normative Definitions? Increases in social diversity Evolution of “deviantising” organizations Legal developments Media attention
The Influence of Social Structure Influences opportunities to break rules Influences content of norms relating to individual behaviour Influences that likelihood of being labelled deviant
Social Structure I: SES SES provides differential opportunities for deviance SES provides for differential application of deviant labels Consequence: Poor are more often labelled criminal or mentally ill Additionally, norms vary with SES
Social Structure II: Race and Ethnicity Deviance is rarely organized along racial or ethnic lines… However there are definitely norms and notions of that pertain in particular groups.
Social Structure III: Gender Certain forms of deviance are generally gender-specific Another sense of gender-related deviance pertains to violation of gender roles, in committing deviant acts or simply violating standards of gender.
Social Structure IV: Age Social norms are often age-graded Greatest propensity for deviance is in the young- why? –Biological facts? –Youth are under more social control
The Mode of Production (Spitzer) There are “problem populations” that threaten capitalism These groups are created in capitalism through –Capitalism itself, which needs a powerless class –“Disturbances in class rule” Problem populations are either “social junk” or “social dynamite”
Medicalization and the Role of Institutions The “medical model” of deviance asserts that deviance is result of treatable medical conditions, or diseases. Disease has 4 defining elements: –Symptomology –Lesion –Prognosis –Etiology (often “idiopathic”) Conrad on “hyperkinesis” is a case study of medicalization
Moral Entrepreneurs It is a common myth that police or judges work to change laws. Moral Entrepreneurs are private citizens who lobby to create new laws and therefore new classes of deviance. They accomplish this with the assistance of political figures and sometimes media attention (eg Reefer Madness, War Games). Example: Prohibition, MADD, early anti- computer-hacking laws, anti-stalking laws