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HIV PREVENTION EDUCATION By Stacie Brua RN, BSN.  HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus  HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in.

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Presentation on theme: "HIV PREVENTION EDUCATION By Stacie Brua RN, BSN.  HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus  HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in."— Presentation transcript:


2  HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus  HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in the immune system.  HIV damages the body’s ability to fight disease and infections.  HIV leads to AIDS Definition of HIV

3  AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency or Syndrome.  ACQUIRED- not hereditary, HIV must enter the bloodstream to be infectious.  IMMUNODEFIECIENCY- when the immune system is damage, the body is unable to fight off infection  SYNDROME- HIV causes a combination of symptoms, diseases, and infections. Definition of AIDS

4  Is a complex caused by HIV, which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infection and disease.  The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of an HIV infection. AIDS

5  Requires a + HIV antibody test or evidence of HIV infection and the appearance of some very specific conditions or diseases.  HIV is not necessarily AIDS  People diagnosed with AIDS have HIV, but not all people with HIV get AIDS. DIAGNOSIS

6  HIV enters the bloodstream and seeks out “T-helper lymphocyte” (WBC’S)  T-helper lymphocytes can also be referred to as T4 or CD4 cell.  When the virus infects the T-helper lymphocyte, the cell sends signals to other cells which produce antibodies.  What are antibodies? HOW HIV WORKS IN THE BODY

7  HIV infects and destroys the T-helper lymphocytes and damages their ability to signal for antibody production.  Resulting in the decline of the immune system.

8  This is the first stage of HIV disease.  Lasts 1-2 weeks. PRIMARY OR ACUTE HIV INFECTION

9  Period of time when the body first becomes infected with HIV and when the body is able to produce antibodies to HIV.  Could take 2 weeks to 3 months for antibodies to develop  Time when a person may not produce sufficient antibodies to be detected on HIV antibody tests. WINDOW PERIOD

10  Following the acute phase.  The individual looks and feels well, this stage can last for years.  The individual is INFECTIOUS ASYMPTOMATIC STAGE

11  HIV was discovered in 1983  In 1999 researchers reported they discovered the origins of HIV-1  A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west Africa was identified as the original source of the virus.  Humans acquired the virus from the blood of these infected chimpanzees ORIGIN OF HIV

12  Two types- HIV-1 and HIV-2  Worldwide the predominant virus is HIV-1  HIV-2 is uncommon and found in West Africa  Both of these types have multiple subtypes.  Either stain mutates quickly. HIV STRAINS AND SUBTYPES

13  Epidemiology means the study of how disease is distributed in populations and of the factors that influence or determine this distribution.  The CDC estimates there are between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 person in the US that are infected with HIV.  About 40,000 people in the US become infected yearly. EPIDEMIOLOGY

14  In the US there are approximately over 17,000 with AIDS die each year.  The United Nations AIDS program estimates that 38.6 people are in the world living with HIV or AIDS in 2005.  4.1 million people worldwide became infected with HIV in 2005.  Half of these were people between 15-24. Why?????

15  Need an HIV source  Need a sufficient dose of virus  Need an access to the bloodstream of another person THREE CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR TRANSMISSION

16  Anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse  Mother transmitting virus either through breast milk or during birth  Needle stick injuries or infected body fluids coming into contact with BROKEN SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANES  Transfusion prior to 1986 with infected blood or blood products HIV TRANSMISSION

17  Availability of HIV in sufficient quantities  How strong (viability) the HIV virus is in the infected person  How infectious (virulence) the HIV is  The ability for the virus to reach the blood stream ex. Unprotected sex, broken skin, IV drug users sharing needles REQUIREMENTS FOR HIV TRANSMISSION

18  Sexual abstinence  Monogamous relationships  Limiting partners  Safe sex  Avoid injecting drug abuse  Syringe exchange RISK REDUCTION METHODS

19  Occupational exposure- anticipated exposure via skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood during the performance of one’s job duties.  Exposure incident- a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, broken skin or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials while performing your job duties. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

20  Body fluids that are linked to the transmission of HIV, HBV (hepatitis B), HCV (hepatitis C): blood, blood products, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial (joint) fluid, pleural (lung) fluid, peritoneal (gut) fluid, pericardial (heart) fluid, amniotic (fluid surrounding the fetus) fluid, saliva in dental procedures, and specimens with known HIV, HBV, or HCV BLOOD & OTHER INFECTIOUS MATERIALS

21  Bloodborne pathogen training  Hepatitis B vaccination  Infection control systems  Personal protective equipment (PPE)  Safer medical devices  Hand hygiene  Housekeeping  Disinfectants EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN

22  Specimen Handling  Regulated waste disposal  Sharps disposal  Tags / Labels  Personal activities  Food & drink  Post exposure management  HIV / HBV research labs & production facilities

23  STEP 1: Screening Test done on a specimen is called Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).  This test screens for the presence of antibodies to HIV  Specimen options include: blood, oral fluid, or urine  A “reactive” (+) or antibodies detected, must be confirmed by an additional test HIV ANTIBODY TESTS

24  Step 2: if the rapid test is reactive (+) then a Western Bolt is required  Verifies the presence of HIV antibodies and detects individual proteins that make up HIV  This test is costly

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