3 Introduction: - See Textbook, “Luke’s Gospel” pp. 392-408; - 80-90 C.E.: the Gospel according to Luke is written (see Table 11.2, p. 349); - see Figure 11.2: “… the two-document theory” (p. 351); - see Box 11.3: “From Oral Kerygma to Written Gospel …” (p. 352);
4 Introduction: - the first part of a two-volume work (Luke-Acts); - written for a Greco-Roman audience; - the emphasize: Jesus and his disciples, working under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, are innocent of any crime against Rome; - moreover, the author insists that the religion is a universal faith.
6 Outline of the Gospel according to Luke: - Chs. 1 and 2: formal preface and an extended nativity account; - Chs. 3-9: Jesus’ Galilean ministry; - Chs. 9.51-18.30: the “greater interpolation”; - Chs. 18.31-23.56: the Jerusalem ministry and Passion story; - Ch. 24: post-resurrection appearances in or near Jerusalem.
7 Luke’s Historical Vision: - Luke seeks to trace the course of a new religious movement from its inception in a stable in Bethlehem to its hoped-for status as a legitimate faith of the Roman Empire; - Luke’s two-volume work places Jesus at the centre of history.
8 Luke’s Historical Vision: - John the Baptist - the last of Israel’s prophets and the forerunner of the Messiah (16.16); - Jesus’ life is the central act of a three-part drama: 1) Israel (the period of the Old Testament); 2) Jesus (the Gospel accounts); and 3) the Christian church (the Acts of the Apostles).
9 Luke’s Historical Vision: - For Luke, Jesus’ ministry represents a new beginning; - Luke ties Jesus’ resurrection to the disciples’ job of evangelizing the world (24.44-53; Acts 1.1-8); - he focuses on the future work of the church; - Luke’s Acts of the Apostles portrays the disciples as entering a new historical epoch, the age of the church;
10 Luke’s Historical Vision: -Acts concludes: - not by drawing attention to the Parousia; - but, by expressing Paul’s resolve to concentrate on ministry to the Gentiles (28.27- 28).
11 The Author and his Sources: - Luke was not an eyewitness to the events he describes (see Luke 1.1-4); - he is identified in the Muratorian list of NT book (from the 4th century [?]) as “the beloved” physician who accompanied Paul on some of Paul’s missionary journeys; (see G-31) - Iranaeus (ca. 140-ca. 202 A.D.), a bishop of Gaul, refers to the author as a companion of Paul (see Col 4.14; Philem 24; 2 Tim 4.11);
12 The Author and his Sources: - however, he does not seem to be aware of Paul’s letters; - furthermore, he never refers to Paul’s writing; - he refers to Paul only twice as an “apostle”; - for convenience sake, the author is called “Luke”; - he is fluent in Greek and has the most polished style of any of the Evangelists;
13 The Author and his Sources: - was he a Gentile? - written after Titus’ destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE; - reveals detailed knowledge of the Roman siege of the city (21.20-24; see also 19.43-44); - thus, Luke-Acts was probably written after the Jewish revolts of A.D. 66-73; - many scholars place the writings in the mid-to-late 80s (see Textbook, Table 11.2, p. 349 – “Gospel of Luke and Acts are written: A.D. 80-90);
15 The Author and his Sources: - Ephesus is favoured as the place of composition; - this city had a large Christian population. - Luke introduces his account of the Gospel (1.1-4); - he refers to his method and dedicates the work to Theophilus (1.1; see also the dedication to the same person in Acts [1.1]); - Who was Theophilus (“lover of God”)?
19 The Author and his Sources: - the author depends on eyewitnesses; - he also employs later missionary accounts; - but he does his own research (1.1-4). - he is aware of the accounts produced by others (1.1); - he uses Mark as his primary source; - but he edits extensively Mark’s account; - he rearranges Mark’s material to suit his aims;
20 The Author and his Sources: - See Box 12.9 “Luke’s Editing and Restructuring of Mark” (pp. 396-97); - Luke frames Mark’s account of Jesus’ adult life with his own stories of Jesus’ infancy (Chs. 1 and 2) and resurrection (Ch. 24); - he adds to Mark two large sections of teaching material: 1) the “lesser interpolation” (6.20-8.3); and 2) the “greater interpolation” (9.51-18.14); - a great deal of this material comes from Quelle (=Q) and L (=Luke’s special source);
21 The Author and his Sources: - he uses themes and images from the Hebrew Bible; - e.g., he uses Elijah and Elisha (1 Kings 17-19; 2 Kings 1-6) as prototypes of the Messiah; - he uses many of Jesus’ words that occur only in his account (thus, the L source); - e.g., the parable of the prodigal son (15.11-32), the lost coin (15.8-10), the persistent woman (18.1-8), the good Samaritan (10.29-32), and Lazarus and the rich man (16.19-31).
22 The Author and his Sources: - Luke’s special material tends to depict Jesus as gentle and loving; - Jesus... is the Good Shepherd; - He is concerned for the oppressed, namely, the poor, the socially outcast, and women.
28 The Holy Spirit in Luke’s Works: -Luke uses the term Holy Spirit 14 times: - For example: - at Jesus’ conception (1.35); - the Spirit anoints Jesus after his baptism (3.22); - the Spirit leads Jesus to the wilderness (4.1); - the Spirit empowers Jesus for his Galilean ministry (4.14); - the Spirit is conferred through prayer (11.13);
29 Jesus: baptized by John in the Jordan (Mark 1.9-11; Lk 3.21-22).
30 The Holy Spirit: - the Spirit also appears in Acts (2, with power; 11.15-18, and the Gentiles; the Spirit and the church’s expansion; the Christian community is led and blessed by the Spirit).
31 Typical Lukan Themes: - for Luke, Christianity is a saving faith that God offers to all; - Christianity is, thus, a universal religion...; - Luke presents Jesus in a manner that Roman and Greek readers will understand: - he is aware that his Gentile audience is not primarily interested in a Jewish Messiah; - he presents Jesus as “Saviour” - soter (1.69; 2.11; Acts 3.13-15).
32 Infancy Narrative in Luke: - only Luke presents Zechariah and Elizabeth (1.5-25, 39-45, 57- 80); - for Luke, John is the culmination of Israel’s purpose (16.16); - Jesus’ birth begins a new stage in God’s plan for salvation; - Gabriel announces to Mary … (1.26-28); - Mary’s response - the Magnificat (1.46-53) (see 1 Sam 2.1-31); - Luke’s depiction of the birth of Jesus... (2.1-40); - how Luke’s account differs from Matthew’s account (2.1-23).
33 Infancy Narrative in Luke: - Jesus’ presentation in the temple in Jerusalem and Simeon’s prophecy - the Nunc Dimittis hymn - “good news” to “all people” (2.29-32); - Luke is the only evangelist who tells an incident from Jesus’ boyhood days (2.41-52); - the comparison here with young Samuel (compare Lk 2.52 with 1 Sam 2.26).
34 The Importance of Women in Luke: - Luke alone narrates the conversations between Mary and her cousin Elizabeth (1.29-56); - also the words of the prophetess Anna (2.36-38); - Jesus restores to life the son of the widow of Nain (7.11- 17); - he shows compassion to a prostitute (7.36-50); - Luke alone narrates the parable of the woman who has lost a coin (15.8-10); - and the parable of the persistent woman (18.1-8);
35 The Importance of Women in Luke (contd.): - female disciples support Jesus and his male followers “out of their own resources” (8.1-3); - the sisters Mary and Martha are numbered among Jesus’ closest friends (10.38-42). - Mary Magdalene and Joanna are present at Jesus’ crucifixion (23.49, 55; 24.10); - they are among the women who find Jesus’ tomb empty (23.55-24.12);
36 The Galilean Ministry (chs. 3-9): - Luke reproduces much of what is in Mark; - however, he rearranges and modifies this material; - he introduces special themes: - Jesus reads (4.18-19) from Isaiah (61.1-2 and 58.6); - he refers to Elijah (4.25-26) and Elisha (4.27) performing miracles among non-Jewish peoples.
37 The Galilean Ministry (chs. 3-9): - Luke’s Sermon on the Plain (6.20-49): - this introduces the “lesser interpolation”/”insertion”; - comparison with Matthew’s Sermon on the Mount; - Jesus is the model of compassionate service;
39 Sea of Galilee: view from hills to the west.
40 Jesus’ Teaching on the Journey to Jerusalem: - the “Greater Interpolation”/”Insertion” (9.51-18.14): - this part of Luke’s account is mainly a collection of brief anecdotes, sayings, and parables; - here Luke mixes Q with L; - Jesus passes through Samaria (9.52; 17.11): - the number 72 and the number of non-Jewish nations; - the 12 disciples and the 12 tribes of Israel; - the Parable of the Good Samaritan (10.29-35); - Parable about Wealth and Poverty (12.13-31);
41 Jesus’ Teaching on the Journey to Jerusalem: - The Prodigal Son (15.11-32).
44 The Jerusalem Ministry: Jesus’ Conflict with Rome: - Luke draws upon Mark here but emphasizes that Jesus is innocent of plotting treason against Rome (23.4); - the imminence of the kingdom and the kingdom already being present in Jesus’ miraculous deeds and teaching (see 11.20 and 17.20-21); - Predictions of Jerusalem’s fall (19.41-44; 21.20-28): - Luke uses Mark 13 here; - however, he edits it extensively; - Luke and the delayed Parousia (Ch. 21); - he sees a long earthly history for the Christian community.
45 The Jerusalem Ministry: Jesus’ Conflict with Rome: - Jesus as Servant: - Luke’s narrative of Jesus’ final days (19.28ff) parallels Mark’s account (14.1-16.8); - however, he introduces variations to emphasize his theological point-of-view; - for Luke, Jesus appears as a “servant” for others to imitate; - Luke’s version of the Last Supper (22.14-20).
49 Luke’s Passion Story: - according to Luke, Jesus has done nothing illegal against Roman rule (23.1-5, 13-15); - the members of the Sanhedrin bring Jesus to Pilate strictly on political grounds; - Luke has the Roman governor pronounce Jesus innocent (23.15; 23.22); - a fellow victim with Jesus asserts that “this man has done nothing wrong” (23.41); - the Roman centurion proclaims that Jesus is innocent (23.47); - Luke has Jesus pray for his executioners (23.34); - they have acted in “ignorance” (23.34);
50 Luke’s Passion Story: - Jesus’ actions illustrate the principle of all-encompassing love that freely pardons sinners and ends the cycle of retaliation that perpetuates evil in this world; - Jesus’ final words are to his Father to whom he commits his spirit (23.46); - Luke’s Jesus is an example of compassion and forgiveness for all who receive the Spirit.
65 Post-Resurrection Appearances: - Luke places all experiences of the risen Jesus in or near Jerusalem (Luke 24): - Jesus’ appearance on the road to Emmaus (24.13); - Jesus appears in Jerusalem in the midst of a large group, including the Eleven (24.36); - Luke ends his account with Jesus’ promise to send the disciples his “Father’s gift,” the Holy Spirit (24.44-53) (see this fulfilled in Acts 2).