Presentation on theme: "Development Studies THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANZIBAR (SUZA) DS 301 for diploma students third year. Prepared by: Mr. Abdulrahman Mustafa Nahoda 1."— Presentation transcript:
Development Studies THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF ZANZIBAR (SUZA) DS 301 for diploma students third year. Prepared by: Mr. Abdulrahman Mustafa Nahoda 1
2 Theories of Culture 1. Functionalism (Herbert Spencer) 2. Conflict theory (Max Weber & Marx) 3. Symbolic Interactionism (George Herbert Mead)
3 Theories of Culture Functionalists focus on the dominant cultural values that integrate society and produce social order. Conflict theorists focus on culture as a product of the powerful in any given society used to encourage those they oppress to accept their lot in life. Symbolic Interactionists focus on culture as a dynamic changing set of meanings that people believe and remake in interaction with each other.
4 Functionalist Perspective Defends Existing social arrangements; justifies the way things are For instance, what would a functionalist perspective maintain about slavery? Assume all parts of a society serve a function. Not all parts may serve a function when first introduced so a biological analogy falls apart. Difficulty accounting for instability.
FUNCTIONALIST PRINCIPLES Stability Integration Functional Coordination Consensus How can the theory explain a situation where an employee starts a strike that leads to a general revolt against the society? 5
Understanding Conflict Conflict is a natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ in attitudes, beliefs, values or needs It can also originate from past rivalries and personality differences Examples of conflicting values: individualism vs teamwork, family life vs career, 6
7 The Conflict Perspective Conflict Inevitable and Most Important Agent for Social Change Dominant and Subordinate Groups Compete for Valued and Scarce Resources Dominant Groups Create a Facade of Legitimacy to Justify Their Actions Dominant Groups Create a Facade of Legitimacy to Justify Their Actions Ideologies Are Generated Espousing the Fundamental Ideas of the Dominant Groups Ideologies Are Generated Espousing the Fundamental Ideas of the Dominant Groups Key Ideas of Conflict Perspective Key Ideas of Conflict Perspective
Conflict Theory Opposite to the consensus theory (common acceptance of basic values such as virtue, honor, right, and wrong) There is little agreement on basic values Society is made up of many competing groups, each with different interests Law is a weapon that the powerful use to enforce their private interests, often at the expense of the public interest 8
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Micro level interactions Individual behavior is based on the symbols and shared meanings we learn- in other words, on what we “believe” not just what is objectively true So…society is “socially constructed” through human interaction, and symbols change through these interactions We learn these symbols during interactions with other individuals and groups 9
“ Order” for Symbolic Interactionists: Social interaction and shared beliefs (subjective) create order Change results from changing belief systems and ever-changing interactions 10
Weaknesses? Functionalism: Hard time explaining change (since it it a dysfunction); is a conservative view that downplays inequality between groups (defends the status quo) Conflict: Overlooks cohesion and stability, and improvement in some social problems Interactionist: Reminds us that individuals create social structure, but too subjective in interpretation and is not a good explanation of inequality (ignoring the effect of larger social structures and culture) 11