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1 Ergonomics A science that focuses on human capabilities and limitations in the design of work tasks,workstations, tools and equipment.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Ergonomics A science that focuses on human capabilities and limitations in the design of work tasks,workstations, tools and equipment."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Ergonomics A science that focuses on human capabilities and limitations in the design of work tasks,workstations, tools and equipment.

2 2 People Are Different

3 3 People Have Physical Limitations

4 4 People Have Emotional Limitations

5 5 Cumulative Trauma Disorders

6 6 n 300,000 disorders associated with repeated trauma according to BLS. n $27 billion annually in direct worker’s compensation costs.

7 7 Cumulative Trauma Disorders n A group of musculoskeletal and nerve disorders often caused by long-term exposure to repeated,forceful, awkward movements of the limbs and/or joints. n These injuries occur slowly over time and frequently affect the upper extremities and back.

8 8 Types of Cumulative Trauma Disorders n Tendonitis n Carpal Tunnel Syndrome n Cubital Tunnel Syndrome n Epicondylitis n Thoracic Outlet Syndrome n DeQuervain’s Disease

9 9 Symptoms of Cumulative Trauma Disorders n Discomfort n Pain n Swelling n Numbness n Pins and Needles n Reduced range of motion n Loss of strength

10 10 Costs to the Employer n Insurance Premiums n Medical Costs n Absenteeism/Turnover n Re-Training n Decrease in Production n Decrease in Quality

11 11 Costs to the Employees n Pain/Suffering n Stress n Loss of ability to work n Loss of wages n Loss of ability to enjoy life

12 12 Indicators of Need

13 13 Indicators of Need n Employee Generated Change n Manual Material Handling n Seasonal Hiring n Downsizing n Over-time n Incentive Programs

14 14 Indicators of Need n Complaints n Absenteeism n Turnover n Accident Trends n Poor Quality n Decrease in Production

15 15 Why Now?

16 16 Ergonomics Program Management Guidelines For Meatpacking Plants

17 17 Meatpacking Guidelines Program Elements n Workplace Analysis n Hazard Prevention and Control n Medical Management n Education and Training

18 18 Management Commitment and Employee Involvement

19 19 Management Commitment n Written policies and procedures n Resources to support program n Assign and communicate responsibilities n Provide adequate authority n Accountability n Visibility

20 20 Employee Participation n Provide suggestions n Participate in inspections and JHAs n Actively participate in training n Report hazards immediately n Become involved in committees n Work safely

21 21 Workplace Analysis

22 22 Objectives of Workplace Analysis n Identifies existing hazards and conditions, operations that create hazards, and areas where hazards may develop.

23 23 Risk Factors

24 24 Risk Factors n The conditions of a job that contribute to the risk of developing CTDs. n Presence of risk factors does not indicate that injuries are going to occur.

25 25 Posture

26 26 Awkward Posture n Deviations from neutral positions. n The greater the degree of deviation, the higher the risk.

27 27 Awkward Posture n Changing or altering the tool or equipment n Moving or changing the orientation of the part or work surface n Changing the position of the worker

28 28

29 29 Static/Sustained Posture n When a worker must maintain an unsupported position for an extended period of time. n Identification of risk through observation

30 30 End Range Posture n Refers to moving a joint as far as it will go or close to its maximum. n Stress is on the muscles,tendons and ligaments as they are stretched to end range.

31 31

32 32 Forceful Exertions

33 33 Forceful Exertions n The amount of work the joints,muscles, and tendons must do to perform the task. n The higher the force, the more risk of fatigue, loss of strength, and injury to muscles, tendons and joints.

34 34 Forceful Exertions n Maintain neutral posture n Reduce the force n Spread the force n Maintain tools n Power with motors not muscles n Reduce the weight n Add hand holds

35 35 Repetition n Refers to a task or series of motions performed over andover again with very little variation.

36 36 Repetition n Automation n Mechanization n Job Rotation n Task Enlargement n Frequent breaks

37 37 Contact Stress

38 38 Contact Stress n An outside force coming in contact with the soft or unprotected part of the employee’s body. n The amount of damage is dependent on the sensitivity of the exposed body part.

39 39

40 40

41 41 Vibration

42 42 Vibration n Damage to blood vessels n Increased muscle fatigue n Damage to spine n Vision problems n Headaches n Insomnia

43 43 Vibration n Reduce the vibration/modify speed n Equipment maintenance n Vehicle suspension systems n Reduced exposure n Rest breaks n Adequate padding/absorption system n Education

44 44 Environmental

45 45 Environmental Factors n Temperature n Noise n Lighting n Air Quality

46 46 Parts of a Workplace Analysis n Gathering Information n Baseline Screening Surveys n Job Hazard Analysis n Follow-ups

47 47 Gathering Information n OSHA Form 200 n Medical Records n Insurance Records n Safety Records n Personnel Records

48 48 Baseline Screening Surveys n Should be conducted on all jobs showing potential ergonomic risk exposure. n Identifies jobs that place workers at risk of developing CTDs.

49 49 Job Hazard Analysis n Select the job n Step by Step Breakdown n Identification of Hazards n Recommendations n Implementation n Follow-up

50 50 Periodic Review n Unnoticed risk factors n Failures in engineering and/or work practice controls

51 51 Hazard Prevention and Control n Design of the Work Station n Design of the Work Task n Design of the Tools/Equipment

52 52 Design for Adjustability

53 53 Design for Extremes

54 54 Engineering Controls n The preferred method n Makes the job fit the person n Workstation Design/modification n Work Method Design/modification n Tool/Equipment Design/modification

55 55 Work Practice Controls n Procedures for safe work n Instruction in proper work techniques n Training and conditioning n Maintenance schedules n Monitoring n Enforcement n Feedback

56 56 Administrative Controls n Meant to reduce the duration, frequency and severity of exposures. n Decreasing production rates n Limiting overtime n Provide rest breaks n Job Rotation n Task enlargement n Increase number of employees

57 57 Personal Protective Equipment n Assess your hazards n Provide in a variety of sizes n Should not contribute to extreme postures and excessive forces. n “Braces, splints, back belts, and other similar devices are not PPE.”

58 58 Medical Management

59 59 Purpose of Medical Management n To eliminate or reduce the risk of injuries through early identification and treatment. n To prevent future problems through rehabilitation and training.

60 60 Medical Management Program Elements n Accurate injury and illness recording n Early recognition and reporting n Conservative treatment/Referral n Monitoring n Baseline Health Assessment n Light-Duty/Restricted Duty

61 61 Education and Training

62 62 Education and Training n To ensure that employees are informed about the ergonomic hazards to which they might be exposed, and therefore able to participate in their own protection.

63 63 Education and Training n General Training n Job Specific Training n Managers and Supervisors n Maintenance Personnel

64 64 Objectives n Describe the elements of an effective ergonomic program. n Describe the impact of workplace design on the development ergonomic disorders. n Recommend workplace improvements to reduce risk factors.

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