6 n 300,000 disorders associated with repeated trauma according to BLS. n $27 billion annually in direct worker’s compensation costs.
7 Cumulative Trauma Disorders n A group of musculoskeletal and nerve disorders often caused by long-term exposure to repeated,forceful, awkward movements of the limbs and/or joints. n These injuries occur slowly over time and frequently affect the upper extremities and back.
8 Types of Cumulative Trauma Disorders n Tendonitis n Carpal Tunnel Syndrome n Cubital Tunnel Syndrome n Epicondylitis n Thoracic Outlet Syndrome n DeQuervain’s Disease
9 Symptoms of Cumulative Trauma Disorders n Discomfort n Pain n Swelling n Numbness n Pins and Needles n Reduced range of motion n Loss of strength
10 Costs to the Employer n Insurance Premiums n Medical Costs n Absenteeism/Turnover n Re-Training n Decrease in Production n Decrease in Quality
11 Costs to the Employees n Pain/Suffering n Stress n Loss of ability to work n Loss of wages n Loss of ability to enjoy life
33 Forceful Exertions n The amount of work the joints,muscles, and tendons must do to perform the task. n The higher the force, the more risk of fatigue, loss of strength, and injury to muscles, tendons and joints.
34 Forceful Exertions n Maintain neutral posture n Reduce the force n Spread the force n Maintain tools n Power with motors not muscles n Reduce the weight n Add hand holds
35 Repetition n Refers to a task or series of motions performed over andover again with very little variation.
36 Repetition n Automation n Mechanization n Job Rotation n Task Enlargement n Frequent breaks
54 Engineering Controls n The preferred method n Makes the job fit the person n Workstation Design/modification n Work Method Design/modification n Tool/Equipment Design/modification
55 Work Practice Controls n Procedures for safe work n Instruction in proper work techniques n Training and conditioning n Maintenance schedules n Monitoring n Enforcement n Feedback
56 Administrative Controls n Meant to reduce the duration, frequency and severity of exposures. n Decreasing production rates n Limiting overtime n Provide rest breaks n Job Rotation n Task enlargement n Increase number of employees
57 Personal Protective Equipment n Assess your hazards n Provide in a variety of sizes n Should not contribute to extreme postures and excessive forces. n “Braces, splints, back belts, and other similar devices are not PPE.”
59 Purpose of Medical Management n To eliminate or reduce the risk of injuries through early identification and treatment. n To prevent future problems through rehabilitation and training.
60 Medical Management Program Elements n Accurate injury and illness recording n Early recognition and reporting n Conservative treatment/Referral n Monitoring n Baseline Health Assessment n Light-Duty/Restricted Duty
62 Education and Training n To ensure that employees are informed about the ergonomic hazards to which they might be exposed, and therefore able to participate in their own protection.
63 Education and Training n General Training n Job Specific Training n Managers and Supervisors n Maintenance Personnel
64 Objectives n Describe the elements of an effective ergonomic program. n Describe the impact of workplace design on the development ergonomic disorders. n Recommend workplace improvements to reduce risk factors.