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Lesson 9: Bone & Joint Injuries Emergency Reference Guide p

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 9: Bone & Joint Injuries Emergency Reference Guide p"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 9: Bone & Joint Injuries Emergency Reference Guide p. 33-43

2 Objectives Define strain, sprain, fracture and dislocation
List Signs & Symptoms of strain, sprain, fracture & dislocation Demonstrate field assessment Define RICE (Rest, Immobilization, Cold, Elevation) Describe use of RICE

3 Objectives (cont’d.) Demonstrate & describe the emergency treatment for: Strains & sprains Fractures Dislocations, including re-alignment Describe treatment for: Angulated fractures Open fractures Describe long term care for injuries to bones & joints Describe when to evacuate

4 Bone & Joint Injury Overview
Injuries to musculoskeletal system are among most common wilderness injuries Care is same, regardless of exact diagnosis Strains are overstretched muscles or tendons Sprains are injuries to ligaments (e.g. holding bones to bones)

5 Bone & Joint Injury Overview (cont’d.)
A fracture is a bone break, chip or crack Open fracture: open wound in skin over fracture Closed fracture: no break in the skin Closed fractures more common…open ones more dangerous Dislocation: movement of bone or joint away from normal position, often includes tearing of ligaments.

6 Fracture

7 Fracture Types

8 Guidelines for Preventing Bone & Joint Injuries
Pay attention to safety Wear adequate footwear Engage in pre-trip physical conditioning Set up camp or home so there are few trip hazards

9 Checking for Strains, Sprains & Fractures
Signs & Symptoms: Deformity, Open injuries, Tenderness & Swelling (DOTS) Moderate to severe pain or discomfort Bruising (may take hours to appear) Inability to move or use affected area Broken bone or fragments sticking out Bones grating or sounds of grating Feeling or hearing snap or pop Loss of Circulation, Sensation, Motion MOI such as fall, suggests injury may be severe

10 Checking for Possible Bone or Joint Injury
Have patient rest in comfortable position Remove clothing as necessary to check injured area Ask how injury happened & what areas hurt (MOI) Visually inspect entire body. Compare both sides of body to look for differences. Feel for DOTS

11 Checking for Possible Strain or Sprain
Have patient actively move joint & evaluate pain involved Manipulate joint with your hands & evaluate pain If joint appears usable, have patient test it with his/her weight

12 Checking for Possible Fracture
Determine whether injured part looks broken (deformed). Compare to uninjured side Ask patient whether he/she thinks it is broken Gently touch injured area look for: Patients reaction to touch Muscles appear to be in spasm Injured area seems unstable One spot hurts noticeably more than the rest Check CSM beyond site of injury

13 Caring for Strains, Sprains & Fractures
Whether usable or not, general care is RICE Rest: don’t allow injured area to be used for at least ½ hour Immobilization: prevent further injury by keeping injured area still Cold: ice works best, avoid direct contact with the skin Elevation: Keep injury higher than patient’s heart 20-30 min of cold followed by min of warming Repeat RICE cycle 3-4 times a day, if possible

14 RICE Rest Immobilization Cold Elevation

15 Splinting In remote areas, patients will likely need to be moved
The splint should restrict movement to prevent further injury & increase comfort The splint must be made of something to pad injury & rigid enough to provide support Padding should fill in all spaces to help prevent movement Possible splint materials include branches, hiking poles, SAM splints, magazines, etc. Use triangular bandages, tape, elastic wraps, etc. to secure splints

16 Improvised Splinting Material
What items can be used for splinting? Sticks Tent poles Oars/paddles Ski/trekking poles SAM Splints Internal Pack frames

17 Improvised Splinting Material (cont’d.)
Padding: Sleeping bags Foamlite pads Extra clothing Soft debris from forest floor Rolls of sterile dressing

18 Splinting Prepare splinting material before starting trip
Splints must be able to hold injury in natural, neutral position: Spine inline, pad the small of the back Legs almost straight, pad behind knees Feet 90 degrees to legs Arms flexed to cross the heart Hands in functional curve with padding on palms Leave shoe on foot, it can act as splint. Remove, if circulation is an issue Remove rings, bracelets, watches…may restrict flow

19 Splinting Types Hard Splint: splinting material is rigid (i.e. poles, sticks, etc) Soft Splints: splinting material is soft & bulky (i.e. newspaper, sleeping pad, sweatshirt, etc) Anatomical: splint material is another body part (i.e. fingers taped together, legs splinted & tied together)

20 Hard Splint

21 Soft Splint

22 Preparing for Leg Splint

23 Hard Splint - Leg

24 Anatomical Splint - Leg

25 Applying a Sling & Swathe
Support injured arm above & below site of injury Place triangular bandage under arm & over uninjured shoulder. Wrap outside of bandage around other side of neck. Tie on side of neck add padding Bind arm to torso with folded bandage Check CSM below in hand

26 Arm Sling

27 Arm Sling

28 Splinting Skills Session
Form pairs or groups of 3: Splint lower leg with rigid material Splint legs anatomically Splint Forearm with soft material (using a sling & swath)

29 Splinting Specific Fractures
Jaw: hold jaw in place, wide wrap around head Make sure can be removed (in case of vomiting) Collarbone: Secure collarbone with sling & swathe Fingers and toes: Bind to adjacent finger/toe Ribs: support arm on injured side with sling & swathe…make sure patient breathes deeply Hip/pelvis: secure legs together…watch for shock/internal bleeding

30 Caring for Complicated Fractures
Angulated fractures leave bones distorted, open fractures expose body to infection Irrigate open fracture, dress appropriately If bone ends sticks out & help is more than 4 hours away: Control bleeding Clean wound & bones ends (do not touch) Apply gentle inline traction Dress wound

31 Caring for Complicated Fractures (cont’d.)
Splint the fracture, infection likely, but bones survive better in body With angulated fracture, bones must be straightened w/ in-line traction: Pull in direction in which bones are pointed Slowly & gently move broken bone back to place Do not force Do not continue, if increasing pain Splint limb once aligned

32 Dislocations

33 Checking and Caring for Dislocations
Dislocation will produce pain in joint & loss of normal motion Joint “Looks wrong” Many dislocations can only be splinted in the field Some can be put back by realignment through process called “reduction”

34 Dislocation Reduction
Work quickly, but calmly. The sooner reduction is done, the better Encourage patient to relax, particularly when a joint is injured Stop, if pain increases dramatically Splint joint after it is back in place

35 Shoulder Reduction Anterior Shoulder dislocations most common:
Position patient face down on rock/log, injured arm dangling down Tie something lbs in weight to dangling wrist…patient does not hold weight Wait…process takes min. to work Key is for patient to be relaxed & allow gentle pull to ease joint back in place

36 Shoulder Reduction (cont’d.)
Injured patients can do this on themselves, as well The sooner the better, waiting may cause chest muscles to tighten & spasm As soon as process completed, put arm in sling & swathe to secure it

37 Toe/Finger Relocation
Keep injured finger partially bent Pull on end with one hand, press gently back in place with other Place gauze pad between injured finger & the finger next to it Tape in place Do not tape over injured joint

38 Kneecap Dislocation Apply gentle traction to the leg to straighten it
Kneecap may pop in place with just traction Massage thigh & use hand to push kneecap gently back in place Apply a splint that does not put pressure on the kneecap. Patient may be able to walk

39 Guidelines for Evacuation
If injured body part is usable, level of pain determines whether evacuation is needed Evacuate anyone with un-usable body part & first time dislocations GO FAST with angulated fractures, open fractures, fractures of pelvis, hip, femur (thigh), more than one long bone or decrease in CSM below injury

40 Scenario During a trail restoration, an adult leader falls on downed branch & down a 5 foot embankment. You can call the ranger station, but help is at least 1 hour away Break into groups of 4, 1 victim and 3 rescuers.

41 Questions??? What else could you add to your First Aid Kit?

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