2 1. Two major contributions to the fall of the Western Roman Empire were Volcanoes and earthquakesBarbarian invasions and climate changeBarbarian invasions and political corruptionVolcanoes and riots
3 2. Why were aqueducts an important development in the Roman Empire? They allowed Roman military boats to float into city areas.They were beautiful stone bridges that could be used for transportation.They provided water for Roman water parks and Slip n’ Slides.They were man-made channels that carried water for drinking and agriculture.
4 3. How did invaders such as the Huns and Goths affect the Roman Empire? Treaties signed with the Goths greatly expanded the size of the Roman Empire.The Romans and Goths joined forces to fight the Huns.These invaders moved into and eventually conquered Roman territories.Romans were greatly influenced by Goth culture.
5 4. What role did Constantinople’s location play in its development? It was surrounded by water and therefore very difficult to defend.Being located between two seas protected it from attack and offered the perfect spot to control trade between Europe and Asia.Not enough land to grow food.The city was cut off from the Roman Empire and never grew.
6 5. What were Justinian’s most important achievements? Warfare, architecture, and ending slaveryPolitics, music and fighting the power of the popePainting, protecting the environment and working to establish one official language.Code of laws, public works and working to reunite the empire
7 6. Which event marked the end of the 1,000-year history of the Eastern Roman Empire? The writing of the Justinian CodeThe death of TheodoraThe renaming of Constantinople to IstanbulConstantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks
8 Only the church, not the government Both the church and the government 7. Unlike the emperor of the Western Roman Empire, the Byzantine emperor had power over…The popeA council of citizensOnly the church, not the governmentBoth the church and the government
9 8. Which of the following led to the end of feudalism? Crusades and warsThe growth of townsThe Black Death (bubonic plague)All of the above
10 Feudal system Democratic system Code of chivalry Benedictine rules 9. The Viking, Magyar and Muslim (Ottoman) invasions of Europe directly caused the development of the…Feudal systemDemocratic systemCode of chivalryBenedictine rules
11 10. What did knights receive in exchange for their pledge/oath of loyalty to a lord? An incomeA fief (land)A titleA weapon
12 11. Feudalism began to spread to England soon after… Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans.The Vikings began raiding northern EuropeWilliam the Conqueror invaded England and won the Battle of Hastings.Eleanor of Aquitaine married King Henry II of England.
13 12. Medieval Christians feared excommunication because they believed that… Those cast out from the church had to leave their village.Those cast out from the church could not own property.Those cast out from the church could not get work.Those cast out from the church would not get into heaven.
14 All kings only recognizing Eastern leadership. 13. The split in the Christian Church called the Great Schism, which started in the 1000’s, resulted in…All kings only recognizing Eastern leadership.Bishops from the west leaving the church.The Eastern Orthodox Church no longer recognizing the leadership of the Pope in Rome.Muslims taking over Christian churches.
15 Bishops Nobles Invaders Kings 14. As popes tried to increase their power, they came into conflict with….BishopsNoblesInvadersKings
16 15. Why were the Crusades fought? To protect European territory from invading Muslims (Ottoman Turks).To bring the eastern bishops back under the pope’s controlTo gain control of Jerusalem and all of the Holy LandTo unite the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
17 16. What was the most important result of the Crusades? Trade and exchange of ideas between Europe and Asia increased.European kings increased their power.Muslims and Christians gained respect for one another.Popes increased their power.
18 17. Most art and architecture created in the Middle Ages was… Focused on ChristianityCreated by feudal lordsInspired by the lives of kingsBased on natural law
19 18. Why did nobles make King John sigh the Magna Carta in 1215? They wanted to assert the authority of the pope.They wanted to replace him with a different rulerThey wanted to limit and reduce the king’s powerThey wanted to separate church and state
20 19. The main goal of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand was to… Make all of Spain ChristianEnd feudalism throughout their territoryConquer land in FranceMake the pope recognize their authority
21 20. What was the purpose of the Spanish Inquisition? To find and burn places affected with the plagueTo expel all Muslim spies from the countryTo punish and kill people who go against the teachings of the church (heretics and non-Christians) in SpainTo reveal and stop church corruption and waste