Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Chemistry and Matter Ms. Knick HASD. Directions/ Instrucciones: Complete your note outline at your own pace. Do the activities! Complete su nota."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 1: Chemistry and Matter Ms. Knick HASD
Directions/ Instrucciones: Complete your note outline at your own pace. Do the activities! Complete su nota contorno a su propio ritmo. ¿Las actividades!
What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
6 Branches of Chemistry 1.Organic Chemistry- The study of most carbon containing compounds. Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 (Sugar)
6 Branches of Chemistry 2. Inorganic Chemistry- The study of all substances that do not contain carbon. Example: H 2 O (Water)
6 Branches of Chemistry 3. Physical Chemistry- the study of the properties, changes, and relationship between energy and matter
6 Branches of Chemistry 4.Analytical chemistry- the identification of the components and composition of materials.
6 Branches of Chemistry 5. Biochemistry- the study of substances and processes occurring in living things. Example: Photosynthesis
6 Branches of Chemistry 6. Theoretical Chemistry- the use of mathematics and computers to design and predict the properties of new compounds.
Activity/Actividad #1: Watch the video below by clicking the link. You may use your earphones, or ask Ms. Knick for earphones! Mira el vídeo a continuación, haga clic en el enlace. Usted puede usar sus auriculares, o pedir a la Sra Knick para auriculares! Branches-of-Chemistry/?referrer=featured_content
Activity/Actividad #2: Take the practice quiz below by clicking the link. Haga la prueba práctica a continuación, haga clic en el enlace. Chemistry/asmtpractice/Areas-of-Chemistry-Practice
Activity/Actividad #3: When you have complete activity #1 and #2, find Ms. Knick for your homework assignment. You must begin the assignment in class. You may work with a partner who has completed activity #1 and #2. Cuando usted tiene la actividad completa # 1 y # 2, encontrar la Sra Knick por su tarea. Usted debe comenzar la tarea en clase. Usted puede trabajar con un socio que ha completado la actividad # 1 y # 2.
The Scientific Method 1. Observation 2. Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Experiment 4. State the results/theory Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 13
14 Observation Acquiring information or data using your senses. Some observations are simple descriptions –“The soda pop is a liquid with a brown color and a sweet taste. Bubbles are seen floating up through it.” Some observations compare a characteristic. – “A 240-mL serving of soda pop contains 27 g of sugar.”
15 Hypothesis Making an educated guess based on your observations and previous knowledge: –The sweetness of soda pop is due to the presence of Sugar or Aluminum
1 Experiments Test your hypotheses –with a taste test: sugar and aluminum. Theory State your experimental findings. This is not the same as a scientific law. Sugar is sweet
Measuring with a Ruler
Matter and Properties Mass is the measure of the amount of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume (occupies space). Examples: You, me, your desk, air, smoke, water vapor..
Matter and Properties An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
Pure Matter Two types: 1. Elements 2. Compounds
Pure Matter An element is a pure substance made of only one kind of atom. They are organized in the Periodic Table. A Compound is a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. Example: NaCl (two elements JOINED together)
Impure Matter A mixture is impure matter A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties and can be separated physically.
Mixtures Two types of mixtures: 1. Heterogeneous 2. Homogeneous Homogeneous (also known as solutions) have uniform composition throughout. Examples: air, sugar in water, stainless steel. Heterogeneous are not uniform. Examples: granite, wood, blood.
Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous
Matter Can it be separated? Mixtures Is the composition uniform? Homogenous Mixtures Air, sugar in water, stainless steel Heterogeneous Mixtures Granite, wood, blood YESNO Pure Substances Can it be decomposed by ordinary chemical means? Compounds Water, sodium chloride, sucrose Elements Gold, aluminum, oxygen YESNO YESNO
Separation Techniques A mixture can be separated using physical means. Separation Techniques include using: A magnet Evaporation Distillation Chromatography Centrifugation Separating Funnel
Problem: You obtain a mixture of iron, sand, salt and water. Describe how each substance can be separated using the separation techniques discussed. You will use more than one separation technique. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 27
Physical Properties Physical properties can be observed or measured without altering the identity of a material. Example: color, texture, melting point, state of matter.
3 states of matter 1.Solids have definite shape and volume. Particles are packed closely together. 2.Liquids have definite volume but, no shape 3. Gases have neither a definite volume nor definite shape.
States of Matter
Physical Changes Physical change is any change that does NOT result in a change in identity. Examples cutting wire, crushing a solid, gas expanding. Changes in state of matter is a physical change. Example: melting, boiling, freezing.
Chemical Properties Chemical Properties relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that alters its identity. Example a chemical’s reactivity.
Chemical Change Chemical change is when a substance is converted into different substance. Examples milk souring, leaves changing color in the fall. The process CANNOT be reversed.
Signs of a Chemical Change 1. Color Change 2. Heat and/or light is produced 3. Bubbles form (gas) 4. A precipitate is produced – (A precipitate is a solid)
The Periodic Table Periodic table of elements is divided into small squares that have one element in each square. Elements have been named from their Latin meaning, places, famous scientists and from mythology.
Family or groups- vertical columns (18) Period- horizontal rows (7) Metals- ductile, malleable, lustrous, conduct heat and electricity, high tensile strength Nonmetals- brittle, dull, poor conductor Metalloids (also known as semi- metals)- have some characteristics of metals and nonmetals.