2 There are 5 basic principles of fitness, They include: The overload PrincipleThe FITT principleThe specificity principleThe rest and recovery principleThe “use it or lose it” principle
3 The overload principle Most important principle of exercise and strength trainingThe body will adapt to the workload placed upon itIn other words, the more you do, the more you will be capable of doing
4 The overload principle When you stress the body through lifting a weight that the body is unaccustomed to lifting, the body will react by causing physiological changes in order to be able to handle that stress the next time it occurs.The same is true for Cardiovascular trainingIf you ask the heart, lungs and endurance muscles to do work not previously done, it will make changes to the body to be able to handle that task better the next time.
5 The overload principle When working out, you want to increase the workload placed upon your body from the previous workout in order to overload your body to create a “training adaptation”These increases should be small and gradual over a longer period of timeThrough a series of small training adaptations over time, a large increase or adaptation can be achievedThis is how people get bigger, stronger, faster, and achieve a higher fitness level
7 The fitt principleFrequencyThis refers to how often you exerciseAfter exercising, your body requires time to rest and rebuild the stressed musclesIt is important to find a balance that allows for stress to be placed on the body (exercise), and the body to recover and heal before more stress is applied to the body.
8 The fitt principleIntensityThe amount of effort or work that is applied to the body during a specific exerciseRequires a balance to ensure the exercise is difficult enough to overload the body, but not too intense that it causes over training, injury, or burnout
9 How long each workout should last The fitt principleTimeHow long each workout should lastVaries based upon personal goals, intensity, and type of exercise
10 The fitt principleTypeWhat type of exercise will you be doing?Will your exercise be primarily cardiovascular, resistance, or both?What specific exercises will you perform?
11 The specificity principle Exercise should be performed to address specific goalsIf your goal is to improve your race times, you should be working on speed workoutsIf your goal is to gain muscle mass, you should focus on high weight low rep workoutsIf your goal is to tone muscle, you should focus on low weight high rep workouts
12 The rest and recovery principle Rest and recovery is essential for meeting your fitness goalsWhile you can often do cardio every day, you should have at least a day of rest between strength training workoutsBe sure you don’t work the same muscle groups two days in a row to allow for your muscles to rest and recover
13 The “use it or lose it” principle HypertrophyMuscles swell and build mass after exerciseAtrophyMuscles shrink and lose strength after periods of inactivityIn other words:If you don’t use it, you lose it!