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Pursuit of Peace A. Early 1900’s- many efforts at peace 1. Alfred Nobel: Invents dynamite & sets up Nobel Peace Prize 2. 1896: 1 st modern Olympics held in Athens 3. Pacifism: anti-war
Nationalism- cause of tensions A. France & Germany 1. Germany: military power & industrial leadership 2. France: Bitter against German occupation; wants revolt
B. Eastern Europe 1. Russia (Pan-Slavinism): unification of all Slavic people 2. Austria-Hungary: worried about rebellion of Slavs
Eastern Europe 3. Ottoman Turkey: felt threatened by new nations on borders 4. 1912- Balkan States: attacked Turkey
Rivalries among European Powers A. Economic Rivalries: Britain v Germany Britain threatened by Germany’s rapid growth B. Imperialism: colonization in other countries
Rivalries among European Powers C. Militarism & Arms Race: glorification of military & building up army 1. “Social Darwinism”: Survival of the fittest
Tangle of Alliances Distrust led to great powers signing treaties pledging to defend another A. 1882- Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
Tangle of Alliances B. Central Powers: Ottoman Empire, Austria- Hungary, Germany C. Allies: France Britain Russia
Guns of August A. Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary 1. Gavrilo Princip: assassinated archduke & wife 2. June 28, 1914: date of assassination (war officially started one month later)
Conflict Widens A. Austria sends Serbia an ultimatum to avoid war B. From capital to capital word spread & countries started backing each other
Conflict Widens C. Shelieffen Plan: Germany to invade France 1. Aug. 3 1914: Germany invaded Belgium **War: men ran to enlist; each side blamed each other
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