3 Polis: The Center of Greek Life By 750 BC, the city-state – polis – became the central focus of Greek life.Our word politics is derived from the Greek word polis.Physically, a polis was a town, a city, or even a village, along with its surrounding countryside.The polis served as a center for the people could meet for political, social and religious activism.
4 Organization of the City-State The main gathering place in the polis was usually a hill – at the top of the hill was a fortified area called an acropoliswhich served as a place of refuge during and attack and sometimes came to be a religious center on which temples and public buildings were built.Below the acropolis was an agora – an open area that served as a place where people could assemble and as a market.
5 Community of the City-State Varied Population:Athens had a population of 300,000 by the 5th Century BCWas a community of people who shared a common identity and common goals.Citizens with political rights (adult males)Citizens with NO political rights (women and children)Non citizens (agricultural laborers, laves and resident aliens)
6 Community of the City-State Citizens had rights, but these rights were couple with responsibility.Aristotle argued that a citizen did not belong just to himself or herself – “We must rather regard every citizen as belonging to the state”
7 Community of the City-State The loyalty that the citizens had, clearly sparked some negative outcomes.City-states distrusted each other, leading the division of Greece into fiercely patriotic, independent units helped bring about its ruin.By 700 BC the military system was based on hoplites – heavily armed infantry soldiers, or foot soldiers.Went into battle as a unit, marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation known as a phalanx.
8 Greek ExpansionBetween 750 BC and 550 BC large numbers of Greeks left their homeland to settle in distant lands.Why did they leave?A desire for good farmland, overpopulation and the growth of trade were important factors.Each Greek colony became a new polis, independent of the polis that founded it.
9 Greek ColoniesAcross the Mediterranean, new Greek colonies were established along the coast of southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain and northern Africa west of Egypt.The Greeks also settled along the shores of the Black Sea, setting up cities on the Hellespont and Bosporus straits.The most notable city was Byzantium, the site which later became Constantinople and is now Istanbul.Greeks spread their culture and political ideas throughout the Mediterranean.
10 Greek ColoniesSecuring control of the straits and waterways between the Mediterranean and Black seas also gave the Greeks a great economic advantage.Increased trade and industry.The Greeks on the mainland exported pottery, wine, and olive oil and in return they received grains and metals from the west, and fish, timber, wheat, metals and slaves from the Black Sea Region.
11 Tyranny in the City-States Greek tyrants were rulers who seized power by force from the aristocrats.Support for the tyrants came from the newly rich who had made their money in trade and industry, they were looking for the social prestige and political influence.Poor peasants who were in debt to landowning aristocrats also supported they tyrantsThe tyrants gained power and kept it by using hired soldiers.
12 Tyranny in the City-States Once in power, the tyrants tired to help the poor and launched public works projects –glorified the city but also increased the tyrants popularityThey built new marketplaces, temples and wallsDespite their achievements, the tyrants eventually came to be seen as oppressive.The rule of the tyrants ended the rule of the aristocrats in many city states. The end of tyranny then allowed many new people to participate in government.This lead to the development of democracy – government by the people, or the rule of the many.
13 Two Rival City-States Sparta The differences in Greek city-state can be understood by examining the two most famous and powerful city-states, Sparta and Athens.SpartaLike other city-states, Sparta needed more land. Unlike other colonies, Sparta conquered the neighboring Laconians.Later around 730 BC the Spartans undertook the conquest of neighboring Messenia despite its larger size and population.
14 SpartaAfter their conquest the Messenians and Laconians became serfs and were made to work for the Spartans. These captured people were known as helots.Between 800 BC and 600 BC the lives of Spartans were rigidly organized and tightly controlled.Males spent their childhood learning military discipline. Enrolling in the army for regular military service at age 20.Lived on the military base until age 30Served in the army until age 60
15 Women of SpartaWomen did not live in the barracks with their husbands.Spartan women had greater freedom of movement and greater power in the household than was common in other parts of Greece.Spartan women were expected to remain fit to bear and raise healthy children.Upheld the strict Spartan values, expecting their husbands and sons to be brave in war.
16 Spartan GovernmentThe Spartan government was an oligarchy – rule by the few – headed by two kings, who led the Spartan army on its campaigns.A group of five men, known as the ephors were elected each year and were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens.A council of elders, composed of the 2 kings and 28 citizens over the age of 60, decided on issues that would be presented to an assembly made up of male citizens. – this group only voted on issues.
17 Spartan GovernmentSpartans turned their backs on the outside world – foreigners who might have brought in new ideas, were discouraged from visiting.Except for military reasons, Spartans were not allowed to travel abroad, where they might encounter ideas dangerous to the stability of the state.Spartan citizens were discouraged from studying philosophy, literature, or the arts.
18 AthensBy 700 BC Athens had become a unified polis on the peninsula of Attica.Early Athens was ruled by aking. By the 7th century BC,Athens had become anoligarchy under the controlof the aristocrats.The assembly of all thecitizens had few powers
19 AthensBy the end of the 600s BC, economic problems cause political turmoil in Athens.Draco – a politician, codified the laws, adding harsh penalties, including slavery for debtors.The ruling Athenian aristocrats reacted to this crisis in 594 BC by giving full power to Solon – a reformed-minded aristocrat.Cancelled all land debts and freed people who had fallen into slavery.Peisistratus – an aristocrat, seized power in 560 BC, aided Athenian trade as a way of pleasing the merchants – gave aristocrat’s land to the peasants in order to gain the favor of the poor.
20 AthensThe Athenians rebelled against Peisistratus’s son, who had succeeded him and ended the tyranny in 510 BC.Two years later, with the backing of the Athenian people, Cleisthenes, another reformer gained the upper hand.Created a council of 500 that supervised foreign affairs, oversaw the treasury an proposed laws.The Athenian assembly, composed of male citizens, was given authority to pass laws after free and open debate.Created the basis for Athenian democracy.
21 Reading Check √ Describe the characteristics of a Greek city-state? What role did tyrants play in the development of Greek forms of government?How did the restrictions placed on Spartan males affect their lives?In what ways did women contribute to Sparta’s military society?How was a Spartan man’s life different from an Athenians man’s?
22 Reading Check √ Describe the characteristics of a Greek city-state? It was a community of people with a common identity and common goals.What role did tyrants play in the development of Greek forms of government?Tyranny ended aristocratic rule, brought about civic improvements and led to democracyHow did the restrictions placed on Spartan males affect their lives?They made Spartan warriors tough, skilled in fighting and obedient to authority.In what ways did women contribute to Sparta’s military society?They ran the households so that the men could live in barracks and perform their military duties. They brought their sons up to believe in the military ideal, encouraging them to be courageous in war.How was a Spartan man’s life different from an Athenians man’s?Spartan men: tightly controlled, couldn’t vote until age 30, severed in the military until age 60 Athenian men: fewer restrictions, key role in government under Cleisthenes for males who were citizens.