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Rattan Species Diversity Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5 - 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Rattan Species Diversity Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5 - 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rattan Species Diversity Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5 - 16 June 2006

2 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals. Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

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4 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

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6 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

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8 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

9 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

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11 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

12 Introduction Rattan is a group of angiosperm taxon of family Palmae (syn. Arecaceae). Grow as undergrowth vegetation or hanging among tree canopies. A few clumping species dominate forest gaps or newly disturbed forest. Some species of rattan are breeding grounds for insects and birds. Rattan fruits and meristems or cabbages are eaten by birds and/or mammals Items made from rattan stems are part of daily life of people residing close to the forest. Extraction of rattan is a major source of income for some of these people. Rattan stem or cane provides a natural and versatile raw material for the manufacture of furniture, basket and handicraft.

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14 Taxonomy (1) Subfamily: Calamoideae (having overlapping reflexed scales on the fruit; includes sago palms (Metroxylon spp.), bertam (Eugeisonna spp.) and salak (Salacca spp.). Tribe: Calameae (spiny, varies in the inflorescence structure and flowers between groups of rattan genera) Genera: 13 (Lacosperma, Eremospatha and Korthalsia - hermaphrodite flowers; Oncocalamus - hermaphrodite; flowers unisexual; Calamus, Calospatha, Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Restispatha – dioecious; Myrialepis, Plectocomia and Plectocomiopsis – also dioecious, but flowering is terminal Species: about 600 species

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16 Taxonomy (1) Subfamily: Calamoideae (having overlapping reflexed scales on the fruit; includes sago palms (Metroxylon spp.), bertam (Eugeisonna spp.) and salak (Salacca spp.). Tribe: Calameae (spiny, varies in the inflorescence structure and flowers between groups of rattan genera) Genera: 13 (Lacosperma, Eremospatha and Korthalsia - hermaphrodite flowers; Oncocalamus - hermaphrodite; flowers unisexual; Calamus, Calospatha, Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Restispatha – dioecious; Myrialepis, Plectocomia and Plectocomiopsis – also dioecious, but flowering is terminal Species: about 600 species

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18 Taxonomy (1) Subfamily: Calamoideae (having overlapping reflexed scales on the fruit; includes sago palms (Metroxylon spp.), bertam (Eugeisonna spp.) and salak (Salacca spp.). Tribe: Calameae (spiny, varies in the inflorescence structure and flowers between groups of rattan genera) Genera: 13 Lacosperma, Eremospatha and Korthalsia - hermaphrodite flowers; Oncocalamus - hermaphrodite; flowers unisexual; Calamus, Calospatha, Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Restispatha – dioecious; Myrialepis, Plectocomia and Plectocomiopsis – also dioecious, but flowering is terminal Species: about 600 species

19 Taxonomy (1) Subfamily: Calamoideae (having overlapping reflexed scales on the fruit; includes sago palms (Metroxylon spp.), bertam (Eugeisonna spp.) and salak (Salacca spp.). Tribe: Calameae (spiny, varies in the inflorescence structure and flowers between groups of rattan genera) Genera: 13 (Lacosperma, Eremospatha and Korthalsia - hermaphrodite flowers; Oncocalamus - hermaphrodite; flowers unisexual; Calamus, Calospatha, Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Pogonotium and Restispatha – dioecious; Myrialepis, Plectocomia and Plectocomiopsis – also dioecious, but flowering is terminal Species: about 600 species

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21 Taxonomy (2) Variation between species and groups of species: the vegetative structures such as the arrangements of spines on the leaf sheaths; the presence and shape of ocrea and knee, leaves shape and their arrangements; the stem features. a clear different in feature genus lies on the flower characteristics.

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28 Taxonomy (2) Variation between species and groups of species: the vegetative structures such as the arrangements of spines on the leaf sheaths; the presence and shape of ocrea and knee, leaves shape and their arrangements; the stem features. a clear different in feature genus lies on the flower characteristics.

29 Taxonomy (2) Variation between species and groups of species: the vegetative structures such as the arrangements of spines on the leaf sheaths; the presence and shape of ocrea and knee, leaves shape and their arrangements; the stem features; a clear different in feature genus lies on the flower characteristics.

30 Taxonomy (2) Variation between species and groups of species: the vegetative structures such as the arrangements of spines on the leaf sheaths; the presence and shape of ocrea and knee, leaves shape and their arrangements; the stem features; a clear different in feature genus lies on the flower characteristics.

31 Taxonomy (2) Variation between species and groups of species: the vegetative structures such as the arrangements of spines on the leaf sheaths; the presence and shape of ocrea and knee, leaves shape and their arrangements; the stem features. a clear different in feature genus lies on the flower characteristics.

32 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (1) Equatorial west of Africa: Only three rattan: Lacosperma, Eremospatha, Oncocalamus. The largest genus, Calamus (>370 species) covers from Africa, across the India sub-continent and South China, southwards through Malesia region to the pacific islands of Fiji and Vanuatu and eastern Australia) Their centre of diversity is in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. The second largest genus is Daemonorops, with 115 species is centered in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra. The center of diversity for eight genera is Southeast Asia (Calosphata, Ceratolobus, Korthalsia, Myrialepis, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Restispatha)

33 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (1) Equatorial west of Africa: Only three rattan: Lacosperma, Eremospatha, Oncocalamus. The largest genus, Calamus (>370 species) covers from Africa, across the India sub-continent and South China, southwards through Malesia region to the pacific islands of Fiji and Vanuatu and eastern Australia) Their centre of diversity is in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. The second largest genus is Daemonorops, with 115 species is centered in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra. The center of diversity for eight genera is Southeast Asia (Calosphata, Ceratolobus, Korthalsia, Myrialepis, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Restispatha)

34 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (1) Equatorial west of Africa: Only three rattan: Lacosperma, Eremospatha, Oncocalamus. The largest genus, Calamus (>370 species) covers from Africa, across the India sub-continent and South China, southwards through Malesia region to the pacific islands of Fiji and Vanuatu and eastern Australia) Their centre of diversity is in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. The second largest genus is Daemonorops, with 115 species is centered in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra. The center of diversity for eight genera is Southeast Asia (Calosphata, Ceratolobus, Korthalsia, Myrialepis, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Restispatha)

35 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (1) Equatorial west of Africa: Only three rattan: Lacosperma, Eremospatha, Oncocalamus. The largest genus, Calamus (>370 species) covers all the region where rattan is found (Africa, across the India sub-continent and South China, southwards through Malesia region to the pacific islands of Fiji and Vanuatu and the tropical and sub-tropical parts of eastern Australia) Their centre of diversity is in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. The second largest genus is Daemonorops, with 115 species is centered in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra. The center of diversity for eight genera is Southeast Asia (Calosphata, Ceratolobus, Korthalsia, Myrialepis, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Restispatha)

36 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (1) Equatorial west of Africa: Only three rattan: Lacosperma, Eremospatha, Oncocalamus. The largest genus, Calamus (>370 species) covers from Africa, across the India sub-continent and South China, southwards through Malesia region to the pacific islands of Fiji and Vanuatu and eastern Australia) Their centre of diversity is in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. The second largest genus is Daemonorops, with 115 species is centered in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra. The center of diversity for eight genera is Southeast Asia (Calosphata, Ceratolobus, Korthalsia, Myrialepis, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Restispatha)

37 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral (temporary) forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest. Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e..g. C. gibbsianus on Gunong Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

38 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral (temporary) forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest. Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e..g. C. gibbsianus on Gunong Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

39 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest. Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e..g. C. gibbsianus on Gunong Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

40 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral (temporary) forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest) Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e..g. C. gibbsianus on Gunong Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

41 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral (temporary) forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest. Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e..g. C. gibbsianus on Gunong Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

42 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral (temporary) forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest. Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e..g. C. gibbsianus on Gunong Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

43 Geographical Distribution and Habitat (2) Rattan inhabits a wide range of habitat (0 - 3,000 m a.s.l.) Calamus erinaceus (with Oncospermum tigillarium in West Malesia) and Daemonorops langispatha (Borneo) dominated the plant community of the landward fringe of the mangrove. Some species are catholic and found on different topography. (e.g. Plectocomia elongata - adapted to seral (temporary) forests occur in both lowland and hill dipterocarp forests. Some species confined to only a habitat (e.g. Calamus corrugatus, found in “kerengas” forest. Genus Korthalsia do not occur above 1000 m. Plectocomiopsis and Myrialepis are rarely found at higher elevation. Only Calamus and Daemonorops are found in the in montane forests (e.g. C. gibbsianus on Mount Kinabalu, is the only palm found just over 3000 m.

44 Species Richness Rattan species diversity is influence by the terrain and forest type. There is less number of rattan in the upper slope (15-22 species) than lower slope (9-12 species) (Tan et al.,1990) In the lowland, logged forest has fewer species and individuals (12 species, 1008 individuals/ha) than unlogged forest (20; 8691), where edaphic factor plays a role in rattan species diversity. Flood-proned alluvium is rich in rattan (19; 6856), while well-drained alluvium has the least (13; 2061). Elevated areas on laterite and shale have 17 and 18 rattan species, respectively. The latter has the most number of individuals (9887 individuals per ha.)

45 Species Richness Rattan species diversity is influence by the terrain and forest type. There is less number of rattan in the upper slope (15-22 species) than lower slope (9-12 species) (Tan et al.,1990) In the lowland logged forest has fewer species and individuals (12 species, 1008 individuals/ha) than unlogged forest (20; 8691), where edaphic factor plays a role in rattan species diversity. Flood-proned alluvium is rich in rattan (19; 6856), while well-drained alluvium has the least (13; 2061). Elevated areas on laterite and shale have 17 and 18 rattan species, respectively. The latter has the most number of individuals (9887 individuals per ha.)

46 Species Richness Rattan species diversity is influence by the terrain and forest type. There is less number of rattan in the upper slope (15-22 species) than lower slope (9-12 species) (Tan et al.,1990) In the lowland, logged forest has fewer species and individuals (12 species, 1008 individuals/ha) than unlogged forest (20; 8691), where edaphic factor plays a role in rattan species diversity. Flood-proned alluvium is rich in rattan (19; 6856), while well-drained alluvium has the least (13; 2061). Elevated areas on laterite and shale have 17 and 18 rattan species, respectively. The latter has the most number of individuals (9887 individuals per ha.)

47 Species Richness Rattan species diversity is influence by the terrain and forest type. There is less number of rattan in the upper slope (15-22 species) than lower slope (9-12 species) (Tan et al.,1990) In the lowland, logged forest has fewer species and individuals (12 species, 1008 individuals/ha) than unlogged forest (20; 8691), where edaphic factor plays a role in rattan species diversity. Flood-proned alluvium is rich in rattan (19; 6856), while well-drained alluvium has the least (13; 2061). Elevated areas on laterite and shale have 17 and 18 rattan species, respectively. The latter has the most number of individuals (9887 individuals per ha.)

48 The Species-Area Curve for species of rattan in a five hectare plot in the unlogged forest of Pasoh. The number of rattan species was accumulated from 2000 randomly pooled sub- quadrats of 5  5 m

49 The difference in palm species richness between plots in the logged and unlogged forests at Pasoh.

50 The difference in number of palm species in the logged and unlogged forests of Pasoh.

51 The abundance of rattans (per ha) and the differences of abundance in logged and unlogged forest on lateritic soils at Pasoh Forest Reserve Species unloggedlogged% decrease Calamus castaneus160100 C. densiflorus715030 C.diepenhorstii11810511 C.insignis var. insignis723256 C.javensis89-13 C.laevigatus var. laevigatus1003367 C.speciosissimus691480 C.tumidus6183 Daemonorops calicarpa123398 D.didymophylla40100 D.geniculata1863482 D.hystrix925441 D.kunstleri80100 D.leptopus20100 D.macrophylla40100 D.micracantha10280 D.verticillaris120822581 Korthalsia laciniosa20100 K.rigida140100 K.scortechinii120100 TOTAL212556274

52 Genetic Diversity Forest disturbance also caused immediate lost in genetic diversity of a rattan species (Daemonorops verticillaris) in the hill dipterocarp forest. The reduction after logging in expected heterozygosity was 9.4 percents. (Wickneswari et al. 1997). However, in a long run (>40 years), logging did not cause adverse changes in genetic diversity of the species on mixed dipterocarp lowland forest of Pasoh (Wickneswari, 1997).

53 Genetic Diversity Forest disturbance also caused immediate lost in genetic diversity of a rattan species (Daemonorops verticillaris) in the hill dipterocarp forest. The reduction after logging in expected heterozygosity was 9.4 percents. (Wickneswari et al. 1997). However, in a long run (>40 years), logging did not cause adverse changes in genetic diversity of the species on mixed dipterocarp lowland forest of Pasoh (Wickneswari, 1997).

54 Conservation Values (1) Species are threatened if they have small populations and are restricted to a narrow ecological zone (Ratsirarson et al., 1996). Forest clearance, logging and the construction of dams has reduced rattan populations in their natural habitat, thus threatening their existence in the future. Collection of non-timber forest products from rattans has exerted severe pressure on remaining populations in Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew 1989). Collection of palm plants and seeds from the wild by palm enthusiasts intensifies the problem (Chazdon 1988; Kiew 1989a). The decrease in number and density of rattan species in the wild also eventually reduces biodiversity and genetic variability of the species.

55 Conservation Values (1) Species are threatened if they have small populations and are restricted to a narrow ecological zone (Ratsirarson et al., 1996). Forest clearance, logging and the construction of dams has reduced rattan populations in their natural habitat, thus threatening their existence in the future. Collection of non-timber forest products from rattans has exerted severe pressure on remaining populations in Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew 1989). Collection of palm plants and seeds from the wild by palm enthusiasts intensifies the problem (Chazdon 1988; Kiew 1989a). The decrease in number and density of rattan species in the wild also eventually reduces biodiversity and genetic variability of the species.

56 Conservation Values (1) Species are threatened if they have small populations and are restricted to a narrow ecological zone (Ratsirarson et al., 1996). Forest clearance, logging and the construction of dams has reduced rattan populations in their natural habitat, thus threatening their existence in the future. Collection of non-timber forest products from rattans has exerted severe pressure on remaining populations in Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew 1989). Collection of palm plants and seeds from the wild by palm enthusiasts intensifies the problem (Chazdon 1988; Kiew 1989a). The decrease in number and density of rattan species in the wild also eventually reduces biodiversity and genetic variability of the species.

57 Conservation Values (1) Species are threatened if they have small populations and are restricted to a narrow ecological zone (Ratsirarson et al., 1996). Forest clearance, logging and the construction of dams has reduced rattan populations in their natural habitat, thus threatening their existence in the future. Collection of non-timber forest products from rattans has exerted severe pressure on remaining populations in Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew 1989). Collection of palm plants and seeds from the wild by palm enthusiasts intensifies the problem (Chazdon 1988; Kiew 1989). The decrease in number and density of rattan species in the wild also eventually reduces biodiversity and genetic variability of the species.

58 Conservation Values (1) Species are threatened if they have small populations and are restricted to a narrow ecological zone (Ratsirarson et al., 1996). Forest clearance, logging and the construction of dams has reduced rattan populations in their natural habitat, thus threatening their existence in the future. Collection of non-timber forest products from rattans has exerted severe pressure on remaining populations in Peninsular Malaysia (Kiew 1989). Collection of palm plants and seeds from the wild by palm enthusiasts intensifies the problem (Chazdon 1988; Kiew 1989). The decrease in number and density of rattan species in the wild also eventually reduces biodiversity and genetic variability of the species.

59 Conservation Values (2) The conservation status of species can be used to assess the biodiversity of the community in which they occur. A community with a large number of endangered species may qualify as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’. Genetic Heat Index (GHI, Hawthorne, 1996) was used to highlight ‘hotspot’ areas with high concentrations of rare species. The index is based on species rarity and coloured stars (star ratings) are used to represent groups of species with different conservation values (e.g. endangered, vulnerable, rare). A modification of Hawthorne’s GHI was applied in the assessment of palms diversity at Pasoh (Supardi, 1999).

60 Conservation Values (2) The conservation status of species can be used to assess the biodiversity of the community in which they occur. A community with a large number of endangered species may qualify as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’. Genetic Heat Index (GHI, Hawthorne, 1996) was used to highlight ‘hotspot’ areas with high concentrations of rare species. The index is based on species rarity and coloured stars (star ratings) are used to represent groups of species with different conservation values (e.g. endangered, vulnerable, rare). A modification of Hawthorne’s GHI was applied in the assessment of palms diversity at Pasoh (Supardi, 1999).

61 Conservation Values (2) The conservation status of species can be used to assess the biodiversity of the community in which they occur. A community with a large number of endangered species may qualify as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’. Genetic Heat Index (GHI, Hawthorne, 1996) was used to highlight ‘hotspot’ areas with high concentrations of rare species. The index is based on species rarity and coloured stars (star ratings) are used to represent groups of species with different conservation values (e.g. endangered, vulnerable, rare). A modification of Hawthorne’s GHI was applied in the assessment of palms diversity at Pasoh (Supardi, 1999).

62 Conservation Values (2) The conservation status of species can be used to assess the biodiversity of the community in which they occur. A community with a large number of endangered species may qualify as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’. Genetic Heat Index (GHI, Hawthorne, 1996) which is used to highlight ‘hotspot’ areas with high concentrations of rare species. The index is based on species rarity and coloured stars (star ratings) are used to represent groups of species with different conservation values (e.g. endangered, vulnerable, rare). A modification of Hawthorne’s GHI was applied in the assessment of palms diversity at Pasoh (Supardi, 1999).

63 Conservation Values (3) The initial star rating of each palm species found at Pasoh was therefore based on simple translation of the category to which it was assigned by Kiew & Dransfield (1987). The adjustment factors include global and local distributions, ecology, taxonomy, potential economics, life history and species interactions with the ecosystem. Simplified adjustment factors as in Table. Emphasis is given to species with scattered and/or small populations; species with no or few close relative infraspecific variants; and species that are least likely to survive habitat disturbance.

64 Definitions of star categories of Hawthorne (1996) adapted for Peninsular Malaysia and their correspondence with conservation categories of Kiew & Dransfield 1987. Star Categ ories Conserv ation status Definitions BlackE Urgent attention to conservation of populations needed. Rare internationally or endemic to Peninsular Malaysia and not common. GoldR, V1 Fairly rare internationally and/or locally. BlueV2 Widespread internationally, but moderately rare in Peninsular Malaysia, or vice versa. Greennt Species common in Peninsular Malaysia and internationally. Species sometimes found in very large populations.

65 Conservation Values (3) The initial star rating of each palm species found at Pasoh was therefore based on simple translation of the category to which it was assigned by Kiew & Dransfield (1987). The adjustment factors include global and local distributions, ecology, taxonomy, potential economics, life history and species interactions with the ecosystem. Simplified adjustment factor as in Table. Emphasis is given to species with scattered and/or small populations; species with no or few close relative infraspecific variants; and species that are least likely to survive habitat disturbance.

66 Factors for refinement of initial star ratings of based on species on characteristics (adapted from Hawthorne, 1996; and Chua etal,.1998). Adjustment factors Upgrade (+)Downgrade (-) 1. DistributionScattered and/or small population size Widespread and/or locally abundant wherever it occurs 2. Taxonomy and variability Taxonomically isolated, no or few close relatives; no named infraspecific taxa. Closely related to other species; infraspecific taxa (subspecies, varieties) recognised. 3. Adaptability to disturbance and ability to regenerate Population greatly reduced in disturbed habitat; ability to regenerate better in undisturbed habitat High probability of surviving disturbance; regeneration in disturbed habitat is dependent on survived population

67 Conservation Values (3) The initial star rating of each palm species found at Pasoh was therefore based on simple translation of the category to which it was assigned by Kiew & Dransfield (1987). The adjustment factors include global and local distributions, ecology, taxonomy, potential economics, life history and species interactions with the ecosystem. Simplified adjustment factors as in Table. Emphasis is given to species with scattered and/or small populations; species with no or few close relative infraspecific variants; and species that are least likely to survive habitat disturbance.

68 Conservation (4) No Black star species at Pasoh. The initial star ratings show only one Gold star species (Korthalsia flagellaris), 38 species in the Blue star category, and six Green star species. After refinement, two species (Calamus tumidus and Pholidocarpus macrocarpus) are upgraded from Blue to Gold star category. Both species are found in small populations and in habitats that are now mostly covered by agricultural crops. The number of Blue star species is reduced to 28. Eight species are downgraded to Green star category, which contains 14 species. These eight species are rattans which are widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, found in many of the neighbouring countries, in large populations and can withstand disturbance.

69 Conservation Values (4) No Black star species at Pasoh. The initial star ratings show only one Gold star species (Korthalsia flagellaris), 38 species in the Blue star category, and six Green star species. After refinement, two species (Calamus tumidus and Pholidocarpus macrocarpus) are upgraded from Blue to Gold star category. Both species are found in small populations and in habitats that are now mostly covered by agricultural crops. The number of Blue star species is reduced to 28. Eight species are downgraded to Green star category, which contains 14 species. These eight species are rattans which are widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, found in many of the neighbouring countries, in large populations and can withstand disturbance.

70 Conservation Values (4) No Black star species at Pasoh. The initial star ratings show only one Gold star species (Korthalsia flagellaris), 38 species in the Blue star category, and six Green star species. After refinement, two species (Calamus tumidus and Pholidocarpus macrocarpus) are upgraded from Blue to Gold star category. Both species are found in small populations and in habitats that are now mostly covered by agricultural crops. The number of Blue star species is reduced to 28. Eight species are downgraded to Green star category, which contains 14 species. These eight species are rattans which are widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, found in many of the neighbouring countries, in large populations and can withstand disturbance.

71 Conservation Values (5) Pasoh contains 45 or 23 % of about 194 palm species in Peninsular Malaysia and 17 genera, or 59% of the 31 genera of palms in Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-one species in 8 genera are Calamoid palms. Seven genera are Arecoids, while two are Coryphoids. The percentages of species in the three star ratings are similar on all for soil types in the unlogged forest around 4% Gold, 60% Blue and 36%Green. There are 42 and 29 species in the unlogged and logged forests of Pasoh, respectively. The GHI values differ appreciably, 236 for the unlogged forest but only 197 for the logged forest. This indicates that logging has reduced the conservation value of the lowland forest of Pasoh by 17% (Note: The GHI for Ulu Endau is a overwhelming figure of 422)

72 Conservation Values (5) Pasoh contains 45 or 23 % of about 194 palm species in Peninsular Malaysia and 17 genera, or 59% of the 31 genera of palms in Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-one species in 8 genera are Calamoid palms. Seven genera are Arecoids, while two are Coryphoids. The percentages of species in the three star ratings are similar on all for soil types in the unlogged forest around 4% Gold, 60% Blue and 36%Green. There are 42 and 29 species in the unlogged and logged forests of Pasoh, respectively. The GHI values differ appreciably, 236 for the unlogged forest but only 197 for the logged forest. This indicates that logging has reduced the conservation value of the lowland forest of Pasoh by 17% (Note: The GHI for Ulu Endau is a overwhelming figure of 422)

73 Conservation Values (5) Pasoh contains 45 or 23 % of about 194 palm species in Peninsular Malaysia and 17 genera, or 59% of the 31 genera of palms in Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-one species in 8 genera are Calamoid palms. Seven genera are Arecoids, while two are Coryphoids. The percentages of species in the three star ratings are similar on all for soil types in the unlogged forest around 4% Gold, 60% Blue and 36%Green. There are 42 and 29 species in the unlogged and logged forests of Pasoh, respectively. The GHI values differ appreciably, 236 for the unlogged forest but only 197 for the logged forest. This indicates that logging has reduced the conservation value of the lowland forest of Pasoh by 17% (Note: The GHI for Ulu Endau is a overwhelming figure of 422)

74 Thank You


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