2 In the Renaissance a new philosophy, HUMANISM, emphasized: 1. INDIVIDUALISM: glorifying potential, talents and accomplishments of individual human beings.2. CLASSICISM: Re-discovery and appreciation of ancient Greek & Roman culture3. SECULARISM: emphasis on this world (the “here & now”) and its material pleasures rather than the afterlife (“hereafter”) or spiritual world.
3 1. From Medieval Artistic Expression to Humanism Hieratic Scale1. From Medieval Artistic Expression to HumanismHalo signifies they are residents of heavenThis is a very early example of Renaissance painting, containing many of the characteristics of paintings from the Middle Ages. The halos around the heads of the figures in the painting signal that they are residents of heaven. The pairs of saints and angels around the upper border of the painting are smaller than the Madonna and child in the center. This is called hieratic scale, which means making the most important figures in a work of art larger than less important figures.Jacopa di Cione Madonna and Child in Glory 1360/65 Tempera and gold on panel
4 Gold background symbolized Holy Heaven It was common during the Middle Ages for artists to use gold backgrounds to symbolize the holy atmosphere of heaven but artists in the Renaissance were less interested in heaven and much more interested in what the world around them looked like.Does St. Martin of Tours wear a halo?Does this artist used Hieratic scale. Where? Why?Where are the figures in this painting? Do their surroundings look true to life? Why or why not?Franconian School Miraculous Mass of St. Martin of Tours about Tempera and gold on canvas on panel
5 differ from the previous paintings? Is the landscape How do the halo’sdiffer from the previous paintings?Is the landscapeHeavenly or earthly?Do these figures wear halos? How do they differ from the halos the students saw in the first painting? Describe the landscape surrounding these figures. Is the landscape heavenly or earthly?Renaissance interests changed from studying religion to studying natural sciences and human nature, the paintings created during the Renaissance changed too. In this painting, the holy family of the Madonna and baby Jesus with St. John live in the same world as ordinary people.This painting is made with oil paint, invented during the Renaissance. Oil paint allowed artists to build up layers of paint that light could shine through, and allowed artists to represent light in a more believable way.Guiliano Bugiardini Madonna and Child with St. John 1523/1525 Oil on panel
6 Giovanni Agostino da Lodi Adoration of the Shepherds About 1505 Hieratic Scale?Halos?This painting, made a little later than the others, shows the holy family of Mary, Joseph and baby Jesus, with shepherds on each side of the painting and an angel playing a lute at the center.Did this artist has used hieratic scale. Why or why not? Can you see any halos?Giovanni Agostino da Lodi Adoration of the Shepherds About 1505
7 Adoration of the Magi 1550/60 Oil on oak panel Accurate PerspectiveBuildings trueto life?Examine the buildings in the background very carefully. Do they look true to life? Why or why not?Mathematical formulas that allowed artists to represent space in paintings in a very believable way were invented during the Renaissance. This is called accurate perspective.Compare the perspective in this painting with the perspective you saw in the earlier painting Miraculous Mass of St. Martin of Tours (Franconian School). Which looks more true to life? Why?Can you find any halos in the Adoration of the Magi painting? Is there any hieratic scale at work? Where is there landscape in this painting? Did the artist use oil paint or tempera? Can you tell which figures are ordinary people in this painting and which are saints?Renaissance artists represented the interests in the culture they worked in and the saints, heaven and the church began to be a part of everyday life, quite literally as this painting shows.Adoration of the Magi 1550/60 Oil on oak panel
8 Annibale Carracci Bean Eater 1582/83 Italian, 1560-1609 Oil on canvas Is this mana Saint?Ordinary people became worthy subjects for works of art.While religious subjects remained popular during the Renaissance, for the first time in art history ordinary people also became worthy subjects for works of art.Can you tell if the man in the painting is a saint? Is this painting an oil painting? How can you tell?Annibale Carracci Bean Eater 1582/83 Italian, Oil on canvas
9 2. Realism & Expression Expulsion from the Garden Masaccio 1427 First nudes since classical times.
10 3. Perspective First use of linear perspective! The Trinity Masaccio 1427First use of linear perspective!What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
11 The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 verticalhorizontalPerspective!
12 4. Emphasis on the Individual Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499 “First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.”Great patroness of the arts in Mantua.Known during her time as “First Lady of the World!”
13 5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures The Dreyfuss Madonna with the PomegranateLeonardo da Vinci1469The figure as architecture!
15 Here’s Michelangelo’s famous sculpture, the Pieta, 1499 The Pieta is another common theme in Catholic art, just like the Madonna and ChildWhat is being depicted here?
16 But these are still religious works Renaissance Europe is still a very religious societyMadonna of the Carnation –daVinci,The Church is still a major power & art patronBut the art is now done in a realistic style by professionally trained artists, not untrained monks
17 To summarize: Art changed… from egg tempura to oil, from panels to canvas,from hieratic scale to perspective,From heavenly to earthly landscapesfrom halos and religious figures to human realismAnd Renaissance art is broken into 3 phases → early, high and late
18 The Arnolfini Marriage Jan van Eyck – Flemish1434Example of Northern Renaissance ArtOne of earliest works to use oil – allowed for layering and thereby more realistically capture light and shadowAs well, it depicts a civil marriage (in a home, not a church), lots of marital symbolism i.e. dog = fido = fidelityCan’t see it but mirror shows a lot of detail , second couple who act as witnesses…
19 The Seven Sorrows of the Virgin Albrecht Durer – Germany1497Northern Renaissance