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The Beginning of Modern Painting

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1 The Beginning of Modern Painting
The Renaissance The Beginning of Modern Painting [ ]

2 Legacy of the Middle Ages…
Notions of honor, duty, loyalty, and love European cities / The middle class The state system - representative government English common law -concept of liberty Equality and the sacred worth of the individual Universities Corporations, Bookkeeping & Banking Preserved Greco-Roman scholarship Growth of secularism

3 Humanism: A philosophical world view which focused on human potential and achievement in this world – Secularism. [as apposed to Spritualism] Petrarch ( ) and Boccaccio ( ) encouraged the study of Greek and Roman writings to understand their ideas and values. 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks. Byzantine scholars fled to Italy with collections of manuscripts – many of which were thought to have been lost forever. Humanist scholars influenced artists and architects to carry on the classical tradition. A Humanist education (studia humanitatis) grammar; rhetoric; poetry, moral philosophy and history – create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and be ready to participate in the civic life of the community

4 The Renaissance: Why In Italy?
Why does the Renaissance begin in Italy- one explanation- the old ruins must have made people wonder about their past civilization 4

5 Location- peninsula still in the Middle of a fairly active sea=going trade in Middle Ages- Muslimes, Byzantine and others. Especially after the Crusades when a demand for eastern goods was increasing in demand in western Europe 5

6 Characteristics of Renaissance art
Oil on stretched canvass Linear Perspective Contraposto- showing action Chiaroscuro- Use of light and shadow- Sfumato-without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke Pyramid configuration Realism and naturalism Details, including artist’s name.


8 A Roman fresco-The Three Graces

9 Italy in the 15th century was divided into kingdoms, Duchies and city-states. The two most powerful were Venice and Genoa. 9

10 While Venice and Genoa were the leading Italian trading city-states, Florence was the center of European banking system that had emerged in the 13th century. 10

11 Patrons of the Arts… Cosimo de Medeci

12 Medieval art Medieval art was more about the symbolism than trying to recreate a true image 12

13 Giotto (1266-1337): pre-cursor to the Renaissance
Giotto di Bondone, Italian painter, Florentine school (b. 1267, Vespignano, d , Firenze); Scenes from the Life of Christ: Lamentation, This is The Lamentation. The founder of all modern painting. First to break from the Medieval and Byzantine linear style. Appreciated even in his own time as a revolutionary artist- Dante acknowledged his skill in Purgatorio. Intoduced a new dimension to art- figures seemed to exist in real space. Recognizable emotions; simplification of forms- characters are clearly defined and quickly readable to the eye. Actions are immediate, they are understood for themselves and as part of the story told by the picture. Figures have volume and weight-they fill the cloth. Giotto’s works were mainly church frescoes, few are in good condition, most have disappeared. Falls short of true perspective and before anatomy is understood. 13

14 St. Francis Gives His Cloak to the Poor, Giotto
Giotto worked mainly in fresco painting. He is known for beginning to put in natural landscape backgrounds to his painting, as opposed to the plain gold backgrounds favored by the older Cimabue Landscape, motion, naturalism of the human form 14

15 The Last Supper, Giotto Giotto 15

16 The “Three Friends” in Florence
Brunelleschi ( ) Donatello ( ) Masaccio ( )

17 Il Duomo, Brunellschi, 1436 Filippo B- New cathedral going up in ?Florence since 1296; needed a roof for the cross area; Bruno in competition with others came up with the dome, inspired by rome, 1st truly post-medieval engineering marvel. Built in rings without scaffolding, he invented hoisting machines- reflected his bold nalaytical mind. 17

18 David, Donatello , 1430 (David was the patron hero of Florence)
The first free-standing nude sculpture since Roman days. Donatello focuses on the beauty of the body and like the Greeks and Romans, it is an idealized representation of the human body. It is a young boy, anatomically correct at 62 inches high. Would have been condemned during the middle ages/church but was a symbol of civic pride to the Florentines. David sleighs the giant Goliath (Florence, small free state vs other powerfal Italian states. Goliath’s helmet is the same as the Duke of Milan /enemies of Florence. 18

19 Mosaccio: The Trinity, 1425

20 Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1426
Masaccio Tribute Money Fresco, 255 x 598 cm Cappella Brancacci, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence The episode depicts the arrival in Capernaum of Jesus and the Apostles, based on the account given in Matthew's Gospel. Masaccio has included the three different moments of the story in the same scene: the tax collector's request, with Jesus's immediate response indicating to Peter how to find the money necessary, is illustrated in the centre; Peter catching the fish in Lake Genezaret and extracting the coin is shown to the left; and, to the right, Peter hands the tribute money to the tax collector in front of his house. This episode, stressing the legitimacy of the tax collector's request, has been interpreted as a reference to the lively controversy in Florence at the time on the proposed tax reform; the controversy was finally settled in 1427 with the institution of an official tax register, which allowed a much fairer system of taxation in the city. There are other references and allusions which have been pointed out by scholars. Ever since the earliest scholars began writing about this fresco they showed special interest in the realistic details, which they noticed and pointed out despite the disappearence of the colour caused by the lampblack and the thick gluey substance that misguided restorers repeatedly applied to the surface of the frescoes over the centuries. Today it has finally become easier to appreciate the wealth of fascinating details, thanks to the recent restoration: Peter's fishing rod, the large open mouth of the fish he has caught, described down to the smallest details, the transparent water of the lake and the circular ripples spreading outwards, toward the banks. The awareness that they are about to witness an extraordinary event creates in the characters an atmosphere of expectation. Behind the group of people we can see a sloping mountainous landscape, with a variety of colours that range from dark green 20

21 Sandro Bottecelli, Prima Vera 1478
The First spring, life-like characters- a sense there is a body underneath the flesh; faces-elegant noses, high cheeck bones, strong jaw bones- all faces are that of Simonetti Vespucci. The characters are taken from Greek-Roman mythology- in the center is Venus/Aphrodite (goddes of love) and next to her are her three attendants- the three graces- Fertility, Joy and splendor. 21

22 The Birth of Venus, 1482 Sandro Bottecelli
This and Prima Vera were two panels commissioned for the Medeci villas are his best known works. Venus may be seen as a neoplatonist expression of both pagan and christian love. Slender, elegant figures; Bottecelli had already been painting religious subjects, in st Sebastian. In 1481, he was one of the artists chosen to go tom Rome (from florence) to decorate the walls of the Sistine Chapel.

23 The High Renaissance: 1475-1575
Da Vinci ( ) Michelangelo ( ) Raphael ( ) Titian, ( )

24 DaVinci, “The ideal Renassance Man” or “The Universal Man

25 The Last Supper, 1495 The High Renaissance lasted just a few years…Fresco painting; use of perspective and pyramid composition; Through gesture and expression, DaVinci captures for the first ime in art, the fundemental character and psychological state of each disciple-facial expression and gestures. 25

26 Mona Lisa, 1503- 1506 Pyramid composition Linear perspective
Light & shadow Relaxed & natural Layers of glaze- 3D quality No solid lines-sfumato La Gioconda; t hung in Napoleon’s bedroom until 1804 (moved to La Louvre). Historically, the young wife a a Florentine merchant Giaconde. It set the standard for portraits-the use of perspective (all lines converge at a single vanishing point behind her head); triangular composition established the importance of geometry in painting;; the subject is shown in a relaxed, natural , three-quarter pose (as opposed to the stiff profile portraits of the time); the hands reflect the study of anatomy by DaVinci who had dissected and sketched over 30 cadavers. One of the first easel painting intended to be hund on the wall; built the illusion of 3d through layers and layers of thin, semi-transparent glazes (sfumato) without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke-today-air-brushing); chiaroscuro –light and shadow; 26

27 Ginevra de Benci, DaVinci, 1474
Leonardo da Vinci's "Ginevra de Benci" (c.1475) at the National Gallery in DC. oil on panel 27

28 “mirror writing” -13,000 pages


30 Sculptor, painter, poet & architect.
Michelangelo Sculptor, painter, poet & architect. Marcello Venusti, 'Portrait of Michelangelo', Florence, Casa Buonarroti. Michelangelo's first love was sculpture. Among his early works, the Pieta commissioned by the Vatican and David commissioned by the city of Florence proclaimed his unprecedented ability to transform marble from a slab of stone to a brilliant evocation of Michelangelo from a contemporary portraitthe human experience. By 1508 the artistic community of Rome (including the painter Raphael and Donato Bramante, architect of St. Peters) felt so threatened by Michelangelo's mercurial rise to fame that they devised a plot intended to discredit and degrade the young artist. They would persuade Pope Julius II to have Michelangelo paint the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel. They were convinced that the young sculptor, who had never attempted a fresco before, would inevitably fail or, at the very least, become embroiled in a time consuming effort that would remove him from the competition for years. Michelangelo at first refused, protesting that he was a sculptor, not a painter. However, Pope Julius insisted and finally prevailed. It was arduous work, requiring the artist to constantly work on his back atop a scaffold that raised him up to within inches of the ceiling. After four years, Michelangelo revealed a masterpiece. 30

31 Lorenzo, The Magnificent

32 1498-1500, his first masterpiece
Pieta, , his first masterpiece In 1498 after Christ, Michelangelo, only 22 years old, writes a contract, guaranteed by Jacopo Galli, with the French Cardinal of San Dionigi, for the realization, within a year, of a "Pietà" (pity) in marble destined to be placed in the Basilica of San Pietro. On a piece of marble personally chosen in the pits of Carrara, Michelangelo represents the isolated aspects of the Virgin Mary holding in her arms the body of the Christ right after it was taken down from the Crosse, according to an iconography that, during this period, had found a large consensus on the other side of the Alps. 1.74cm high, the "Pietà" of Michelangelo presents strong particularities in the anatomy and also in the finishes of the drapes, with translucent effects of accentuated by the way in which the light seemed to caress the marble superficies. 32

33 Not just a victorious hero, but a champion of just causes
Not just a victorious hero, but a champion of just causes. Mick had a tormented life- he believed he was a genius, inspired – in tune with the neo- platonist idea of perfection through the cosmic truth. Nude-lent itself to antiquity, technique included harmony, symmetry, proportion. It too glorified the human form. It is 17 feet high and was originally placed in the central square of Florence. 33

34 Moses

35 The Sistine Chapel, 1512 – ceiling:
The most magnificent art project of all time! Equal to his ego- thew Creation, The Fall and the Reconciliation of Man! Dynamic, took over 4 years to complete, Pope Julius II often lost patience, kept askiinging when will it be finished. C Covers 10,000 square feet; 343 figures each 10 feet high. The ceiling is 60 feet in the air, but the myth, that he painted it lying on his back is not true. The Sistine Chapel, 1512 – ceiling: 10,000 sq ft with 343 figures, 10 ft in length 35

36 Just a few years after Leonardo da Vinci ( ) achieved tonal unity, Michelangelo Buonarroti ( ) tried a different approach. His colors are brilliant and contrasted, whereas da Vinci’s are subdued and unified. Michelangelo’s contours are crisp and set off against a contrasting background, whereas da Vinci’s blend and avoid silhouette.   Doni Holy Family, Michelangelo Buonarroti, c    Michelangelo mixes his colors with both black and white to maximize the contrast range for all the colors he uses. This means the lighter parts of each color (even the black of Joseph’s tunic) are almost white and unrealistically de- saturated. The only color that has a high enough luminance in pure form is the yellow of Joseph’s cloak; Michelangelo does not have to de-saturate the yellow to get a high value. Therefore, the yellow robe has a different quality from all the others, the hues of which vary substantially in saturation and therefore look somewhat metallic. By using such a wide range of luminances, Michelangelo achieves vivid depth from shading. Still, both contemporaries and present day critics were surprised by his use of color. Why? Michelangelo was the undisputed master of drawing in 16th century Italy. The cleaning of the Sistine Chapel ceiling and the Doni Tondo have revealed him to be a colorist of great originality, working with a fully-saturated palette. These “shot” effects (sometimes compared with “shot silk”) look forward to the work of Mannerist artists such as Jacopo Pontormo (1494-c.1556), Agnolo Bronzino ( ), and Rosso Fiorentino ( ), in whose hands they evoke a disquieting and emotive effect. However, this use of cangiantismo as it is known, goes back to the late 12th and 13th century art of Giotto, and later 15th century artists such as Andrea Mantegna ( ). These are all artists working in Northern Italy or Florence who gave primacy to draughtsmanship. The Creation of Adam. Michelangelo Adam’s nude body is a good example of disegno, with muted coloring and masterful foreshortening.   Over the course of his lifetime, Michelangelo saw the real beginning of the controversy over the importance of drawing (disegno) versus color (colore). Although earlier writers, including Aristotle, had introduced this debate (line conveys rationality and order; color appeals to the senses), this now becomes a major issue to both writers and painters. A contemporary and admirer of Michelangelo, Giorgio Vasari ( ), wrote Vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani ( , The Lives of the Artists), in which he praised Michelangelo for his formal preparation involving endless drawings. This he contrasted with the work of some Venetians, such as Titian, who often worked out his compositions directly on the canvas. In Vasari’s estimation, these artists were giving undue importance to color. He quoted Michelangelo as saying that, while the color and style of the Venetians pleased him, “It was a shame that in Venice they did not learn to draw well.” There were many Venetian apologists and critics who responded to Vasari by pointing out that because contours do not exist in nature, color and shading are indispensable. Debate about Michelangelo’s use of color has lasted for centuries. His use of color was criticized by 16th century Venetians as being “licentious” or unsuitable, and the recent restoration of Michelangelo’s ceiling has been criticized. Consider the lighting conditions, both then and now, and it will help to explain contemporary surprise – after the ceiling was restored - at Michelangelo’s unexpected use of vivid color. Then, compare the Venetian manner of applying color – using richer, tonally related color with varied and expressive brushwork - with the cangiantismo of Michelangelo and other painters in northeastern Italy. (See also the exhibit "Feast of the Gods," and a discussion of Venetian art.) Does Michelangelo’s use of color add to the powerful effect of the figures? < Previous       Next >   Bibliography   Credits & feedback 36

37 ; ½ the length of a football field-10,000 square feet; 7 story high scaffold, the roof leaked, making the plaster damp; 37

38 Raphael, 1483-1520 “The most popular”
most completely expressed all the qualities of the High Renaissance Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, Head of a Youth, Possibly a Self-Portrait, ca Inscribed in ink at the bottom of the sheet: Ritratto di se medessimo quando Giovane ("Portrait of himself when young") at 26, he was painting the walls of the Sistine Chapel while Michelangelo was painting the ceiling. 38

39 Raphael’s Three Graces, 1505

40 Madonna and Child, Raphael, 1505

41 St. George Fighting the Dragon, Raphael, 1504
Early Raphael There are still echoes of the gentle Perugino in an early Raphael like the diminutive St George and the Dragon, painted when he was in his early twenties; the little praying princess is very Peruginesque. But there is a fire in the knight and his intelligent horse, and a nasty vigour in the convincing dragon that would always be beyond Perugino's skill. Even the horse's tail is electric, and the saint's mantle flies wide as he speeds to the kill. 41

42 The School at Athens,- 1510-1511; sculptural quality; architectural perspective;
School of Athens, 42


44 socrates

45 Diogenes

46 Patron of both Michelangelo and Raphael: Pope Julius II, 1511
Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to He is commonly known as the "warrior Pope." Early life Julius II (Giuliano della 46

47 Baldassare Castiglione (1514-15), Raphael's portrait of the famous Humanist philosopher
Lorenzo di Medici, Raphael’s portrait of “The Magnificent”

48 Titian, 1490-1576 Self-portrait
The Father of Modern Painting- no wood panels, no frescoes; only oil on canvass. Self-portrait. Father of modern painting- first to abandon wood panels and used oil on canvass as typical medium 48

49 Madonna with child and saints, Titian

50 John On The Island Of Atmos, Titian

51 Adam and Eve Expelled… Titian,
Adam and Eve Expelled from the Garden of Eden First he covered his canvass with red for warmth, then he painted both the background and figures in vivid hues, then toned them down with layers of glazed. through this slow process, he was able to portray any texture completely convincingly, whether polished metal, shiny silk, red-gold hair or warm flesh. 51


53 Characteristics of Renaissance art
Oil on stretched canvass Linear Perspective Contraposto- showing action Chiaroscuro- Use of light and shadow- Sfumato-without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke Pyramid configuration Realism and naturalism Details, including artist’s name.

54 Post- Renaissance painting

55 Tintoretto, Jacopo Tintoretto.  Last Supper   Venice.  Oil on canvas, 12 feet x 18 feet, 8 inches. 55

56 "Christ at the Sea of Galilee" -- Tintoretto
Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there His father was a dyer; hence his surname of Tintoretto (the little dyer). In his early youth he displayed an extraordinary taste for the fine arts. He played well on the harp, but his aptitude for painting was still more pronounced. His parents made him an apprentice of the aged Titian, but Jacopo, eager to distinguish himself, soon set up a studio of his own. His ambition was nothing less than to transform Venetian painting by adding to its distinguishing qualities of brilliantly harmonious colouring and pleasant grace of form the merits of the Florentine and Roman schools, a knowledge of anatomy which excels in the nude, dramatic mise en scene, a pose full of movement, a vigorous contrast of light and shade. According to his biographer, C. Ridolfi, he summarized his ideal in the ambitious formula: "The drawing of Michelangelo and the colouring of Titian" (Il disegno di Michelangelo, il colorito del Tiziano). To fit himself for carrying out this magnificent but difficult programme Robusti devoted himself to unremitting labour. He studied the ancient statues; he had sent to him from Florence the reductions which Daniel of Volterra had made in plaster of Michelangelo's masterpieces, "Dawn", "Noonday", "Twilight", and "Night"; he drew incessantly from the living model or the draped lay figure; he dissected dead bodies; he worked not only by sunlight but also by the flicker of torches in order to master the varied play of light. This intense labour was not fruitless. Being gifted with wonderful facility he executed a countless number of works, and even to the end of his life sustained a veritable fever of production. "Christ at the Sea of Galilee" -- Tintoretto 56

57 El Greco, 1547-1614 “View of Toledo” c 1600

58 Rembrandt,

59 Fran Hals, 1580-1666 Laughing Cavalier, 1624

60 Peter Paul Rubens,

61 Durer,

62 Any Questions…

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