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The Fall of the Roman Empire

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1 The Fall of the Roman Empire
Chapter 6 Unit 4 Notes

2 The fall of the roman empire
Main idea: Empire building: internal problems and invasions spurred the division and decline of the roman empire Why now: Decline and fall of great civilizations is a repeating pattern in world history Terms: Inflation, mercenary, Diocletian, Constantinople and Attila

3 The Fall of The Roman Empire
Setting the Stage: 3rd century AD Rome had many problems (external and internal) Drastic economic, military, and political reforms couldn’t hold off the collapse

4 A Century In Crisis Death of Marcus Aurelius (180 AD) ended the Pax Romana Future rulers lack of experience leads to more problems and decline

5 A Century In Crisis Rome’s Economy Weakens
Factors of weakening economy: Hostile tribes/pirates disrupted trade Lack of new sources of gold/silver Raised taxes for more revenue Made more money with less silver INFLATION: drop in value of $$ and rise in prices

6 A Century In Crisis Factors of agricultural decline:
Harvest meager (over worked land) War destroyed lands Food shortage = starvation and disease = drop in population

7 A Century in Crisis Military and Political Turmoil Military issues:
Less discipline and loyalty Allegiance to commander NOT Rome Recruited mercenaries (hired soldiers) to protect gov’t Loss in patriotism

8 Emperors Attempt Reform
Empire stayed intact for 200 more years Reform minded Emperors Division of Empire Diocletian Reforms the Empire: Ruled in 284 AD Limited freedoms Restored order and increased strength Claimed to be a descendent of the Gods

9 Emperors Attempt Reform
Diocletian con’t… Believed empire was too large so divided it in 2: East: Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt West: Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain Diocletian took the east and gave the west to a co-ruler Diocletian maintained overall control East became center of trade and wealth Diocletian was ill, civil war broke out and Constantine took over

10 Emperors Attempt Reform
Constantine Moves the Capital Gained control of west in AD 312 and 12 years later gained control of east AD 330 moved capital to Byzantium on the Bosporus Strait (connected E + W) Center of power shifted to east Called Constantinople (City of Constantine) Constantine died, Empire divides again: W = Fall and E = survive

11 The Western Empire Crumbles
Decline took many years: Internal conflicts Outside invasions Germanic Invasions Northern border had co-existed 370 Huns moved into the area and destroyed all in path Germanics pushed into Rome to avoid Huns Barbarians = non Romans Lack of Army = German plunder Rome

12 The Western Empire Crumbles
Attila the Hun Indirectly responsible for German invasion of Rome Huns destroyed 70 cities in the east (but Constantinople) 452 arrive in Rome Rome weak from disease and famine

13 The Western Empire Crumbles
Last emperor Romulus Augustus (14) Ousted by Germans in 476 Eastern half = Byzantium Flourished for next 1000 years Emperors saw themselves as heirs to Augustus Caesar

14 Multiple Causes of the Fall of Rome
Contributing Factors POLITICAL Office seen as a burden Military interfered Civil war Division of Empire SOCIAL Decline in interests Low confidence Lack of Patriotism Rich/Poor contrast Decline in population Economic Poor harvests Disruption in trade Inflation Tax burden Gap between rich and poor Military Threats in North Low funds for defense Immediate Causes = Germanic Tribes and Huns

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