Presentation on theme: "Postembryonic Development Lange BIOL 370 – Developmental Biology Topic #18."— Presentation transcript:
Postembryonic Development Lange BIOL 370 – Developmental Biology Topic #18
The major thrust of this chapter is to highlight more strenuously that development is NOT something that occurs simply early in life. Development and changes in development occur THROUGHOUT the entire lifespan of an organism.
Eye migration and associated neuronal changes during metamorphosis of the Xenopus laevis tadpole Note the difference in eye position for the frog tadpole and the adult frog. The changes are associated with changes in degree of binocular vision.
Changes in the Xenopus skull during metamorphosis Blue stain is highlighting cartilage. Red stain is highlighting bone.
Development of the urea cycle during anuran metamorphosis The urea cycle shows the biochemistry behind the process of cell waste release with limited water loss (important for terrestrial animals). Notice how this cycle develops as the aquatic tadpole metamorphoses towards the adult stage.
Metabolism of thyroxine (T 4 ) and tri-iodothyronine (T 3 ) In the body, Thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) are the key players in regulating metabolism. Thyroxine serves as a prohormone… a committed intra-glandular precursor of a hormone. The enzyme Deiodinase II converts the T 4 into T 3
Basics of Frog Metamorphosis: Metamorphosis in frogs is where the body makes a transition into the adult form.and It is initiated by production of the hormone thyroxine. Thyroxine causes different tissues to develop in different ways in the frog: development of the lungs and the disappearance of the gills and gill pouch the lower jaw transforms into the big mandible of the carnivorous adult the long, spiral gut of the herbivorous tadpole is replaced by the typical short gut of a predator nervous system becomes adapted for hearing and stereoscopic vision and for new methods of locomotion eyes are repositioned higher up on the head with eyelids and associated glands formed. eardrum, middle ear, and inner ear are developed skin becomes thicker and tougher
Regional specificity during frog metamorphosis In this transplantation stuy, we can see that regional specificity is retained: Regardless of “normal” or “abnormal” location of the tail tip, at this stage, it is reabsorbed (A). Regardless of location, eyecup transplants remain (B)
Direct development of the frog Eleutherodactylus coqui While most frogs will undergo a fairly traditional metamorphosis, there are exceptions. Here we see a species that develops the adult form while encased in the egg.
Parental care of tadopoles (A) Shows a poison dart frog carrying its offspring on its back. (B) Shows a moth brooding frog. The offspring will not emerge until metamorphosis is complete.
Modes of insect development Ametabolous - insect development with no metamorphosis. Immature stages appear very similar to the adults, except that they lack genitalia. Hemimetaolous - insect development in which there is incomplete or partial metamorphosis, typically with successive immature stages increasingly resembling the adult. Holometabolous - insect development in which there is complete metamorphosis and the immature stages, called larvae, are markedly different from the adults.
Regulation of insect metamorphosis Hormones regulating metamorphosis include: JH or Juvenile hormone (also called neotenin) - ensure growth and hinder metamorphosis PTTH or prothoracicotropic hormone or metamorphosis initiator hormone – stimulates the prothoracic gland to produce Ecdysone - the molting hormone that causes ecdysis (molting) Hydroecdysone - the hormone that stimulates ecdysis AND metamorphic change in form.
20E-induced puffs in cultured salivary gland cells of D. melanogaster Control Hydroxyecdysone stimulated (25 minutes) Hydroxyecdysone stimulated (1 hour) Hydroxyecdysone stimulated (2 hours) Hydroxyecdysone stimulated (4 hours) The size differences in the “puffs” are an indication of increased replication.
Regeneration in the larval forelimb of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum
Regeneration of newt limbs depends on nAG (normally supplied by the limb nerves) nAG (neuroblastoma amplified gene) proteins are supplied by limb nerves The right limb in the image is denervated and then amputated. Following amputation, increased electrical field input (electroporation) along with nAG proteins induces the limb regeneration in the absence of the nerve.
Effects of vitamin A (a retinoid) on regenerating salamander limbs Retinoic acid appears to help in regeneration in a variety of ways. The limbs of these salamanders had a more rapid regeneration when the growing regions were bathed in this vitamin a derivative.
Proximalization of blastema respecification by retinoic acid
Grafting experiments demonstrating different morphogenetic capabilities in different regions of the Hydra apical-basal axis
Grafting experiments providing evidence for a head inhibition gradient
Bud location as a function of head and foot inhibition gradients
Organisms must effect a compromise between the energy allocated to reproduction and growth and the energy allocated to the maintenance and repair of bodily tissues
Life span and the aging phenotype The children in (B) have a condition called Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria. This is a genetic condition characterized by the dramatic, rapid appearance of aging beginning in childhood. Affected children typically look normal at birth and in early infancy, but then grow more slowly than other children and do not gain weight at the expected rate.
A possible pathway for regulating longevity In these examples, insulin signaling is associated with decreased cellular longevity.
Survival curves for the U.S. population for the periods 1900–1902, 1949–1951, and 1999–2001