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HINDUISM SHIVA VISHNU BRAHMA.

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1 HINDUISM SHIVA VISHNU BRAHMA

2 Hindu Gods GENESHA KALI Hinduism -1 Video Hinduism-2 Video

3 Hindu Gods KRISHNA RAMA Hinduism-3 Video Hinduism-4 Video

4 Location of Hinduism

5 Hinduism World Status Hinduism: 900 million 15% of world population
Third largest world religion Christianity 32% Islam 22% Secular/Non-religious 15%

6 Origins of Hindu Culture
Before the Aryans the Dravidians Indian civilization inhabited the Indus Valley. Early tribal people, Dasas, described as dark skinned, thick lipped, possessing cattle and speaking a strange language Advanced civilization from Harappa to Mohenjo-Daro – planned cities with a sewage system connected to some houses Language has not be deciphered. Religion mainly unknown but had figurines and sculptures of people meditating – fertility gods and goddess?

7 Origins of Hindu Culture
Indo-Aryans (Indo-Europeans) began to invade the India sub-continent about 1800 to 1500 B.C. Source of Greek, Latin, Celts, German, Slav language Oral tradition called the Vedas Rishi (seer) – drank “Soma” a hallucinogenic to experience the gods and wrote down in hymns that would become the Vedas

8 Origins of Hindu Culture
Began to become acclimated to new environment and become agriculturists Ruler (rajah=rex), private army, priests Priests would supersede simple rituals and be the only available source for sacrifice – priests called Brahmins. Brahmanas are the books of the Brahmins that record the sacrifices and their power

9 Origins of Hindu Culture

10 Origins of Hindu Culture
The term “Hindu” had its origin from the Muslims conquerors who used it to describe the inhabitants of Northern India. Hinduism was use by the British for the diverse religious traditions of the people of India. Today it is used popularly to describe the religious life distinct from Christianity and Islam. There is no unified religious entity so it is best to talk of “Hindu traditions.”

11 Hindu Religion “We venture to predict that Hinduism is not a religion at all, but a series of loosely strung and infinitely varied sacerdotal and sociological artificial conventions to which a religious verisimilitude has been imparted by the ancient law-givers, but which is nevertheless daily undergoing endless fluctuations, not only in any given locality, but throughout the Hindu world.” (V. N. Narasimmiyengar True Hinduism, 5)

12 Hindu Religion Sanatana Dharma Hindu-ness
Contemporary scholars prefer this term to describe the Hindu religion. Meaning – ageless way of moral order, duty and natural law of the cosmos. Hindu-ness Political identification

13 Hindu Religion Sanatana Dharma Encompasses
Mystical texts referring to the formless and transcendent self Abstract philosophical treatises that disagree with each other about the truth of existence A wealth of ascetic meditation practices for realization of the eternal Large pantheon of deities

14 Hindu Culture & Religion
Extremely varied personal beliefs allowed Cannot separate from the culture To be Hindu, a religion has to: Regard the Vedas as divinely inspired and authoritative Accept the caste system Respect the veneration of the various levels of deities and spirits, including the protection of cows Recognizing them as authoritative does not mean accepting them as literally true or practicing them as commanded Winfried Corduan

15 Hindu Religion Not a creedal religion
Both Christianity and Islam are creedal religion where people may come to faith in God through belief and conviction Islam – anyone can become a Muslim by saying the Kalima Christianity – through faith in Christ A non-Hindu can hold the same beliefs as a Brahman friend but is still considered an outcast “Let him live a pious life and then, after many transmigrations, his soul may be at least reborn into a Hindu family.”

16 History of Hinduism Two Early Periods
The Vedic Period (1500 B.C. – 500 B.C.) The Philosophic Period (500 B.C. – A.D. 500) Vedas – literally means “knowledge” but basically refers to the four sacred scriptures, often includes the Upanishads and their commentaries (sometimes used to refer to all the Hindu sacred writings). Originally revealed to holy men who wrote them down.

17 History of Hinduism Vedic Period (1500 B.C. – 500 B.C.)
Aryans, speaking Sanskrit, authors of the Rig-Veda (lit. knowledge enshrined in verses) Rig-Veda – oldest collection of 1,028 prayerful Sanskirt hymns – prayers addressed devas (gods) “shinning ones” who dwell on earth, the heavens, and intermediate air (as early as 1500) Like Greeks, practiced ancestor worship, worshipped nature gods or devas (Lat. deus). Devas invested with personal attributes, bright beings with superhuman powers dwelling in celestial regions.

18 Origins of Hindu Culture/Religion
VEDIC TEXTS Hinduism based on Vedic Texts written between 1500 – 500 BC Shruti – “that which is heard” distinguish from later writings Smriti – “that which is remembered” also considered by some as authoritative (considered less sacred and non-Vedic) Four parts of the Vedic texts Samhitas (1500 – 900 BC) – “collection” of hymns Brahmanas (850 BC) – Caste Aranyakas – Later part of Brahmanas Upanishads (500 BC) – Philosophical: Brahman, Atman, Maya, Yoga, Nirvana

19 Origins of Hindu Culture/Religion
Other Vedas basically dependent on Rig-Veda Yajur-Veda – mostly in prose, meant to supply dedication, prayers, and litanies recited by priests in the course of their duties in sacrifices Sama-Veda – Chants for worship by priests derived from Rig-Veda Atharva-Veda – Charms, incantations and spells (considered somewhat inferior and associated with folk religion)

20 Origins of Hindu Culture/Religion
Over time the sacrificial system developed to compel the gods to grant appropriate rewards. Brahmans (priests) alone knew how to offer sacrifice aright and extract favors from the gods and they took on a sacred position. Aryans kept a distinction between themselves and the darker skin indigenous population the Sudras (serfs) and they as Dvija (twice born). Varna (color) – distinction between races; source of caste system

21 Philosophic Period Caste system Based on dharma (religious duty)
Each person born into a caste community Each person has his/her duty with community Every community has its own religion/god Preservation of social and ceremonial purity

22 Origins of Hindu Culture/Religion
Aryans four castes (1st three = twice born) Kshatriyas – warriors and princes Brahmins – priests and instructors Vaishyas – Agriculturalists and merchants Shudras – Workers (surfs) Hundreds of subcastes (jati) Twice born have full participation in Hindu life Study of Vedas, puberty initiation, & social leadership Aryans controlled study of Vedas Aryans brought all of India under their control and people assimilated their beliefs with Aryan beliefs

23 Origins of Hindu Culture/Religion
Brahmins (priests) until recently were sole custodians of study of the Vedic texts Different brahmans: Brahman – the impersonal pantheistic god Brahma – the personal creator god Brahmin – the priest & priestly caste Brahmanas – priestly commentaries on the Vedas

24 Origins of Hindu Culture/Religion
Development of deities per Corduan, p. 193: Deity Features Dyaus Pitar Original supreme sky god, losing significance Pritivi Mater Mother earth Varuna Later sky god, losing significance Indra King of gods, supreme during Vedic period Mitra A sun god; ritual and moral purity Rita God of truth and right Vishnu A sun god; later the Preserver Rudra Capricious mountain god; later Shiva Agni God of fire Soma God of drink or immortality (soma) Brahmanaspati Spoken word; gaining significance

25 History of Hinduism Way Origin Scriptures Practice Works 1500 B.C.
Vedas, Sutras, Brahmanas. Code of manu Detailed observance of laws & rituals, governed by priests Knowledge 500 B.C. Upanishads (Vedanta) Mystical recognition of Atman-Brahman identity, withdrawal Devotion (Bhakti) 200 B.C. – A.D.800 Bhagavad Gita, Tamil poetry, Puranas Attachment to one god or goddess; three main schools By Winfried Corduan, Neighboring Faiths, p. 192

26 Periods of Hinduism Beliefs
Three Paths (Margas) to Moksha Karma Marga (Way of Action or works) Vedic period Dependent on priests and rituals Jnana Marga (Way of Knowledge) by Yoga 500 B.C. System of mystical contemplation Bhakti Marga (Way of Devotion) 200 B.C. to A.D. 800 From south India – Tamil Love of a god or goddess provides salvation

27 Philosophic Period Inana – Way of Knowledge
Belief system with mystical contemplation Reaction against priests and rituals controlled by priests Recorded in Upanishads Vedas focused on priestly ritual Upanishads seek a deeper spiritual reality Yoga Form of Sankhya system Perfect pose by which desire is subdued No fresh round of karma set in motion

28 Philosophic Period Two philosophic schools of thought Sankhya
Sankhya – source of Buddhism Vedanta Sankhya Dualistic and atheistic Denies any beginning or a creator Two eternal realities: praakriti and purushas which are both considered real Matter (Western categories) Spirit

29 Philosophic Period Vedanta Non-dualistic
Atman the only reality, all else is illusion (maya)

30 Philosophic Period Way of Knowledge Vendata or Vedantic philosophy
Search for ultimate secret of all existence Search for release from transmigration of the soul Epics literature – legends of gods and heroes Rise of Buddhism

31 Philosophic Period Ultimate Reality
What is behind the changing phenomena? Brahman – pantheistic impersonal god Atman – true self Brahman – one true reality Unchanging something – reality Impersonal, all-pervasive being English – referred to as “world soul” Only true reality Maya – besides Brahman all else maya (illusion) Gods and worship are manifestations of Brahman

32 Philosophic Period Brahman Since not by speech and not by thought,
Not by the eye can it be reached, How else may it be understood, But only when one says, “it is”? Katha Upansishad Tat, the All, Brahman without attributes Tat tvam asi – “that art thou” Key is to transcend world of experience

33 Philosophic Period Maya – Lit. “play” Related to the word magic
Daily life is just magic play Life seen as “illusion” Maya’a reality is derived from Brahman No reality within itself E.g. image created by a projector Everything we experience rationally belongs to maya Feelings, emotions, thoughts

34 Philosophic Period Atman Reality inside a person that is not maya
True self Atman is Brahman – message of Upanishads God resides in the depth of person Soul of the Universe Beyond thought and distinction

35 Philosophic Period Life of sannyasin
Leave one’s previous environment and renounce worldly attachments & discipline Seek one’s true identity apart from the world Attain moksha, the release from samsara and maya If attained, at death will return to Atman-Brahman (reenters Brahman as a drop of water in the ocean) Nirvana – a state of supreme bliss is accomplished

36 Philosophic Period Bhakti (loving attachment) – Way of Devotion
Mid-second millennium A.D. Bhakti is at the heart of most contemporary Hinduism Popular in southern India (non-Aryan or dravidians); today are Tamil people Not through impossible works nor secret knowledge not easily attainable but through a loving relationship with a god or goddess Devotion to a god need not exclude serving others Roots of Bhakti is found in the Bhagavad Gita (200 B.C.) where Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu tells heroic warrior, Arjuna to attach to him and do his caste duty

37 Philosophic Period Two influential Hindu Philosophers
Sankara (8th century) World is totally illusion Only reality is “brahman” Religion was the pursuit deliverance from deception Ramanuja (12th century) Absolute reality of this world Human soul was separate from the godhead and could relate itself to god not by absorption but by devotion.

38 The Gods Brahman manifests itself in three gods.
Rise of three gods above the pantheon of gods. Brahma – Creator of visible things; since work is done there is no need to worship (what Brahma creates, Sheva destroys so new universe can be made Vishnu – Lord of protection (avatars) Shiva – Lord of destruction It is said that there are 330,000,000 gods Exaggerated Many gods and go by different names

39 Primary Hindu Gods & Bhakti Hinduism Schools
The Gods Primary Hindu Gods & Bhakti Hinduism Schools Brahman Brahma Vishnu Shiva Goddess (devi) Sarasvati Lakshmi Parvati Durga, Kali Draupadi Avatars of Vishnu Genesha Periachi and Lakshimi Skandar Mariamman Vaishnavite School Shaivite School Shaktite School Vertical Marks Horizontal Marks Adapted from Corduan, Neighboring Faith – p. 201

40 The Gods Each male god is associated with a female deity, his “shakti” which means “source of power” Generally a consort or broadly a wife Goddess infuses the god with energy to do his work Each god has also has a certain symbolic representation and a riding animal. Multiple arms represents power

41 The Gods Brahma Creator Represented by four heads
Originally had five but Shiva cut it off Images in many temples but not many temples dedicated to him Not a major Bhakti god His shakti, Sarasvati is a popular goddess Receives a lot of veneration Her representation is a musical instrument, e.g. sitar

42 The Gods Vishnu People look to him for salvation
Also look to one of his avatars Vertical line(s) on forehead Known as the preserver Emphasis on chanting, dancing, & meditation Recognized by having four arms with a conch shell, lotus blossom, a discus, and a mace. Riding animal is a bird but also shown reclining on a snake Most concern for maintaining dharma, duty Born into the world as heroic person or animal to put world on right track then dies to reincarnate again (avatar)

43 The Gods Avatars of Vishnu – incarnations of Vishnu in various forms which veil rather than reveal the god within. Usually ten avatars from myths: Matsya – Fish Kurma – Turtle Varaha – Boar Narasimba – Man-Lion Vamana – Dwarf Parashu-Rama – Rama with an ax Rama – Hero of Ramayana (wife sita, Hanuman) Krishna – Teacher of Bhagavad Gita (wife Rada) Buddha (9th avatar) – Founder of Buddhism Balarama – Alernate, brother of Krishna Kalki – Horse , future avatar (period when dharma supreme)

44 The Gods Rama (avatar of Vishnu) Hero of epic Ramayana
His wife, Sita Abducted by demon king, Ravana Rescues wife with help of friends Brother Lakshman Monkey god, Hanuman Usually hold a long bow Color green dominant Rama Bhakti emphasizes Rama’s love and grace to grant salvation Baby monkey school (believer clings to mother) Cat school (believer carried by mother, all Rama)

45 The Gods Krishna 8the avatar of Vishnu Very popular god to worship
Color is usually dark or blue Play a flute Usually seen with his wife, Radha Appears in the Bhagavad-Gita as a profound teacher Myth Victorious over demon king Another view is a mischievous and amorous wonder-worker in folklore with amorous and erotic adventures

46 The Gods Hare Krishna Movement
International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKON), form of Vaishnavite Bhakti Krishna is the supreme form of a personal god ISKON followers are basically monotheistic Source is 16th century teacher, Caitanya A. C. Bhktivedanta Prabhupada popularized it in U.S. In 1960s at age 70, retired pharmaceuticals salesman Popular in U.S. in early 70s but has declined

47 The Gods Krishna - Five Essential Teachings
Krishna is the supreme personal god Salvation can be obtained by chanting the mantra, Hare Krishna 1000 time a day Special worship of singing and dancing The Bhagavad-Gita is inspired scripture Devotee must live a pure life devoted to Krishna Abstaining from meat, caffeine, sweets, and sex for pleasure Distributing literature to raise the consciousness of the message

48 The Gods Shiva Followed by most Bhakti Hindus
Highest god Called the destroyer (of evil) Worship more austere Can cause harm connected to early days being Rudra Horizontal lines on forehead (tilaka) “self-inflicted extremes of devotion” Represented in various ways Phallic symbol (lingam) with yoni (vagina representation) Rides a bull Trident is main symbol

49 The Gods Ganesha Skandar Younger brother of Ganesha God of war
Older son of Shiva & Parvati Myth – Shiva severs head but after calms down vows to replace it with head he see, an elephant Known as remover of obsticles therefore his followers seek him to overcome difficulties in life Learned in Hindu writings & wise Skandar Younger brother of Ganesha God of war

50 The Goddesses Shaktism – goddess is the principle object of worship
Two most popular, Durga or Kali Unfaithful consorts of Shiva Use of sexual motifs Durga Conquering poses Overcame buffalo-headed demon One of ten arms hold trident and other war implements Given blood as worship items Durga

51 The Goddesses Kali – goddess of violence
Directed toward evil & demons Black & Gruesome look Necklace of sculls Belt of severed arms Given blood in worship Stands on a tiger or Shiva’s body Thagis – cult of Kali that practiced human sacrifices Outlawed by Britain in late 19th century Tantrism – sexual emulation to release energy

52 Elements of Hinduism Beliefs
Transmigration of the soul Samasara (reincarnation) – lit. means wandering, chains of finite existence that holds the soul to this world An individual is transmigrated from one existence to another according to one’s behavior (karma) or merit or lack of merit Not mentioned in Vedas Important source for caste system - hope Possibly assimilated from indigenous people Negative – being in world is suffering

53 Elements of Hinduism Beliefs
Karma – cause and effect A person’s life consists of actions both good and bad (not sin or judgment) The amount of merit or demerit to be worked off will determine ones next status in life Could be a Brahman, an outcast, a woman, a dog, a plant, or a worm eaten by a fish Explains differences in human life Good or bad health or poverty and riches due to karma

54 Elements of Hinduism Beliefs
Highest goal of Hinduism Find release from the samasara cycle Moksha – release from action and rebirth Find nirvana by knowledge of the supreme Truth of the brahma-atman the soul is released from the life cycle Found by very few “As rivers flow and disappear at last In ocean’s waters, name and form renouncing So too the sage, released from name and form, Is merged in the divine and ultimate existence.” Mundaka Upanishad

55 Hindu Worship Temple (jagopuram) Usually dedicated to one god
Has images to other god in separate rooms or inset in walls Gods live in their statues so statues must be washed and cared for Daily worship – person removes shoes and places money before god, can chant, color mark on head Temple service (puja – sacrifice) Procession of gods with music, ring bells, no chanting

56 Hindu Worship Daily Worship Dependent on caste
High caste Hindu men pray three times a day, sunrise most practiced Household that house a god must perform puja, washed, dressed, decorated, and given food at every meal. Puja – homage, showing respect to the deities Usually performed by father of the household (wealthy families have their own Brahmin priest)

57 Life Cycle – Rites of Passage
Code of Manu divides life into four stages First is student Rituals regarding birth Ritual to protect unborn from evil spirits Rituals to help new child to be a boy Rituals for god to protect child, goddess Periachi Ritual for males of Twice Born castes Cord over shoulder, renewed once a year Begins in theory to study Vedas Marriage (2nd stage with raising children) Arranged and within caste Walk around sacred fire Red dot on wife’s forehead to indicate married

58 Life Cycle – Rites of Passage
Withdrawal from earning living and devoting more time to prayer, meditation, and worship for the man – 3rd stage Partial renunciation and withdrawal Complete renunciation (4th stage) Pursuit of the Vedantic ideal of seeking moksha Withdraw from family and live alone to achieve final goal Funeral rites Body bathed with water, milk, honey & coconut milk Burned on funeral pyre Sati practiced primarily in past

59 Festivals & Special Days
Each goddess has a day of descent or “birthday” which celebrated in the temple Holi – celebration of Krishna Many festivals associated with various gods and goddesses New Years Homes are decorated with mango leaves Women draw auspicious diagrams on temple floor Festival of Lights Autumn to honor goddess Lakshmi usually Lights to guide goddess to bring prosperity

60 Hindu Worldview gods Universal Reality Material World Samsara
Individual Karma Samsara Material World

61 Christianity & Hinduism
Both have a sense of transcendence Illusionary satisfaction (pleasure does not bring fulfillment) Bhakti = worship and devotion to a supernatural being Self-knowledge – know who we are Karma as sowing what you reap Self-denial Sacrifice

62 Important Terms in Hinduism
Sacred Cow – honored by Krishna Indian scriptures tell us that the cow is a gift of the gods to the human race. It is a celestial being born of the churning of the cosmic ocean. Guias the cow is called in Hindi, is symbolic of Earth itself . It follows that the cow represents the Divine Mother that sustains all human beings and brings them up as her very own offspring. . . Hence to take care of this innocent and self-sacrificing animal is a matter of virtue for Hindus who identify the act ad dharma or moral duty.

63 Important Terms in Hinduism
Ahimsa – doing no injury by word or deed Atman – the soul Avataras – alternate forms that gods take Bhakti – devotion Brahma – the personal creator god Brahman – the impersonal pantheistic god Brahmanas – priestly commentaries on the Vedas Brahmin – the priest & priestly caste Sacred Cow – honored by Krishna

64 Important Terms in Hinduism
Dharma – duty; everyone in whatever place in life has his/her dharma Karma – cause and effect Maya – conscious illusion making power Moksha – transcend samsara; get off the wheel of rebirth and redeath Om – primordial sound vibration Pandit – One from the hereditary priestly caste learned in the ancient texts, customs, and rituals Puja – Homage, showing respect to the deities

65 Important Terms in Hinduism
Puranas – Mythological texts of ancient times and popular devotional texts Rishi (seer) – A poetic sage and authors of Vedic hymns Samsara – life cycle rebirth & redeath Shakti – consort of god Tilaka – decoration on the forehead to indicate god worshipped Sanskrit – Ancient language of the Hindu scripture Yoga (yoking to divinity) – techniques for transforming consciousness and attaining liberation. Sudra – Serfs, low caste


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