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The Mysterious Tail of a Charleston Cat Author: Ruth Paterson and Bess Paterson Shipe Illustrator: Dean Wroth.

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Presentation on theme: "The Mysterious Tail of a Charleston Cat Author: Ruth Paterson and Bess Paterson Shipe Illustrator: Dean Wroth."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Mysterious Tail of a Charleston Cat Author: Ruth Paterson and Bess Paterson Shipe Illustrator: Dean Wroth

2 Where are we going? Four Corners of the Law and St. Michael’s Church Hibernian Society Dock Street Theatre The Market Waterfront Park Old Exchange Building and Provost Dungeon Heyward Washington House Nathaniel Russell House The Battery and White Point Garden The Citadel Middleton Place Magnolia Plantation and Gardens Drayton Hall Plantation **Fort Moultrie**

3 Four Corners of the Law and St. Michael’s Church By 1727 the town had outgrown the space and a larger St. Philip’s was built a few blocks away. The population of Charleston continued to grow and in less than 25 years, the city was too large for just one Anglican church. In 1751, St. Michael’s was built on the property of the original St. Philip’s and the first services were conducted in 1761. Except for the addition of the sacristy in 1883, the structure of the building has hardly changed. The architect of St. Michael’s is not known. The design, however, is described in the Book of Common Prayer and is intended to allow all worshipers to hear and participate. The alter is in a shallow recess close to the congregation, and pews on three sides allow more people to be near the center of worship. Remarkable features of the church include the steeple, which is 186 feet high, a long center pew where both George Washington and Robert E. Lee sat to worship, and a Tiffany stained glass window in the chancel. The clock and eight bells were imported from England in 1764. Each of the bells has been recast at least once, and the clock was restored in 1993. St. Michael’s stands at the intersection of Meeting and Broad Street, known as “The Four Corners of Law.” The post office on the southwest corner represents federal law. The Charleston County Courthouse represents county law on the northwest corner. Municipal law is represented by City Hall on the northeast corner, and St. Michael’s, on the southeast corner, represents God’s law.Broad Street

4 Hibernian Society Hibernian Hall, a National Historic Landmark, was built in 1840 to provide a meeting place for the Hibernian Society, an Irish benevolent organization founded in 1801. The Hall is the only extant building associated with the National Democratic Convention of 1860, one of the most critical political assemblies in this nation's history. Hibernian Hall served as the convention headquarters for the faction supporting Stephen A. Douglas. It was hoped that Douglas would bridge the gap between the northern and southern delegates on the issue of extending slavery to the territories. The first floor of the Hall was used for meetings, while the second floor was filled with hundreds of cots for the delegates. The convention disintegrated no candidate was able to summon a two-thirds majority vote. This divisiveness resulted in a split in the Democratic party, and the election of Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate. Hibernian Hall was the first semi-public building of pure Greek style to be built in the city, and the only building in Charleston designed by architect Thomas U. Walter of Philadelphia. Walter's design included an Ionic pediment which collapsed in the earthquake of 1886 and was replaced by a Corinthian pediment with brackets and a center circular-arched window. The dignified exterior of the Hall does not allude to the flamboyant ballroom and double stair-hall within. The Irish harp carved in the panel above the main door and within the iron gates, as well as a stone from Ireland's Giant's Causeway, reflect the ethnic heritage of the Hall's founders. Christopher Werner, one of Charleston's foremost ironworkers, is responsible for the Hall's gates. The Hibernian Society continues to meet regularly, holding annual elections, alternating each year between a Roman Catholic and Protestant president. The Hall still serves as the location for many events, including an annual St. Patrick's Day celebration, society balls and other brilliant social occasions.

5 Dock Street Theatre On February 12, 1736 the Dock Street Theatre opened with a performance of The Recruiting Officer. Built on the corner of Church Street and Dock Street (now known as Queen Street), the Historic Dock Street Theatre was the first building in America built exclusively to be used for theatrical performances. Flora, the first opera performance in America, took place at the Historic Dock Street Theatre. The original Dock Street Theatre was probably destroyed by the Great Fire of 1740 which destroyed many of the buildings in Charleston's French Quarter. In 1809, the Planter's Hotel was built on this site and in 1835 the wrought iron balcony and sandstone columns of the Church Street facade were added. A number of notable persons worked and patronized the Planter's Hotel including the noted 19th Century actor Junius Brutus Booth (father of Edwin and John Wilkes Booth). Robert Smalls, an African-American Civil War hero, who stole a steamboat in the harbor and sailed it out past the Confederate held Ft. Sumter and turned it over to the blockading Union Fleet, served as a waiter in the hotel's dining room prior to the war. Charleston's famed Planter's Punch was first introduced here. After the Civil War, the Planter's Hotel fell into disrepair and was slated for demolition. But in 1935, after Milton Pearlstine made the property available to the City of Charleston and at the urging of Mayor Burnet Maybank and other notable citizens, the original building became a Depression Era WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. At that time, the present theatre was constructed within the shell of the Planter's Hotel. The hotel's grand foyer became the grand foyer of the theatre and the hotel's dining room now serves as the box office lobby. The beautiful woodwork and mantels of the second floor drawing room were salvaged from the Radcliffe-King Mansion (circa 1799) which stood at the corner of George and Meeting Streets and was razed to build the College of Charleston gymnasium, another WPA project. Modeled on eighteenth century London playhouses by Charleston architect Albert Simons, the present Dock Street Theatre's new stage house and auditorium were built in the hotel's courtyard. The local carpenters who were put to work as a part of this Depression era relief effort utilized locally grown and milled native black cypress for the beautiful warm wooden interior. Following this $350,000 renovation, The Historic Dock Street Theatre's second grand opening took place on November 26, 1937. Notables in the audience included author DuBose Heyward (Porgy) who was named writer-in-residence. The Historic Dock Street Theatre reopened for the third time on March 18, 2010 after a three year, $19 million dollar renovation by the City of Charleston. This extensive full-scale renovation brought the historic theatre into the 21st century with state-of-the-art lighting and sound, modern heating and air conditioning, and new restrooms and seating. In addition the theatre was made seismically secure and fully handicapped accessible. Extensive sound- proofing was added to ensure that outside noises no longer intruded on performances inside. Now owned and managed by the City of Charleston, The Historic Dock Street Theatre (soon to enter its fourth century as the heart of Charleston's artistic life) is home to many of the City's finest cultural institutions including Spoleto Festival USA. Charleston Stage, which became the resident professional theatre at the Dock Street Theatre in 1978, produces over 120 performances each season and plays to more than 40,000 patrons annually. In addition more than 15,000 South Carolina students enjoy special school day performances offered by Charleston Stage each year at the Historic Dock Street Theatre.

6 The Market The Old Slave Mart, located on one of Charleston's few remaining cobblestone streets, is the only known extant building used as a slave auction gallery in South Carolina. Once part of a complex of buildings, the Slave Mart building is the only structure to remain. When it was first constructed in 1859, the open ended building was referred to as a shed, and used the walls of the German Fire Hall to its west to support the roof timbers. Slave auctions were held inside. The interior was one large room with a 20- foot ceiling, while the front facade was more impressive with its high arch, octagonal pillars and a large iron gate. During the antebellum period, Charleston served as a center of commercial activity for the South's plantation economy, which depended heavily upon slaves as a source of labor. Customarily in Charleston, slaves were sold on the north side of the Exchange Building (then the Custom House). An 1856 city ordinance prohibited this practice of public sales, resulting in a number of sales rooms, yards, or marts along Chalmers, State and Queen Streets. One of these belonged to Thomas Ryan, an alderman and former sheriff. Ryan's Mart, now the Old Slave Mart, occupied the land between Chalmers and Queen Street, and contained three additional buildings--a four-story brick tenement building with offices and "barracoon" (slave jail in Portuguese) where slaves were held before sales, a kitchen and a morgue. Before the construction of the shed, sales were held in the tenement building or in the yard. Another auction master, Z.B. Oakes, purchased the property in 1859 and applied for a permit to insert brick trusses for the roof of the shed into the adjacent Fire Hall. When sales were held in the shed, slaves stood on auction tables, three feet high and ten feet long, placed lengthwise so slave owners could pass by them during the auction. The building was used for this purpose only a short time before the defeat of the South in the Civil War led to the end of slavery. Exchange Building Around 1878, the Slave Mart was renovated into a two-story tenement dwelling. In 1938, the property was purchased by Miriam B. Wilson, who turned the site into a museum of African American history, arts and crafts.

7 Waterfront Park Charleston Waterfront Park runs along the Charleston harbor entry. It's 8 acres of lawns, fountains, "garden rooms'' and paths, and culminates in a long pier jutting out into the harbor. It's a must for any tour of the city. The park sits in the center of downtown, and is the perfect place for visitors to enjoy a leisurely day out. The pier and pavilion have picnic tables and family-sized wooden swings, and you can enjoy views of the ships going in and out of the harbor. If you're lucky, you might even spot a dolphin or two. The old-fashioned benches and palm-lined walkways offer a great place for families to relax and unwind. Bring a picnic along whilst your children play on the lawns, and when they want to cool off the two enormous fountains are just waiting to be jumped into. At night, the Pineapple Fountain lights up creating a beautiful spectacle. The park was designed by local landscape architects Edward Pinckney Associates Ltd, and in 2007 it received the ASLA Professional Landmark Award for its innovative design and positive impact on the community. Mayor Joseph P Riley of Charleston has deemed it "this generation's gift to the future'', and it's credited with turning around and revitalizing the waterfront area to make it attractive to visitors again. What was once an abandoned area by the Cooper River, it's now completely remodeled into a great green space. Great care was taken over the design of the park. They wanted to make it accessible for everyone, so rather than yacht tie-ups at the end of the pier they designed it to be used for recreational fishing. Lighting was kept to a minimum so people can see the stars at night, and they made sure that it was completely environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. They wanted to integrate Charleston's past and future, and have managed to do just that. The regeneration of the surrounding area has been another positive impact on the community. Visitors love the views from the pier and the peaceful atmosphere, and the huge fountains are definitely one of the main attractions. In the evening the park takes on a more romantic vibe, and the walks along the pier can be a special treat. Entry to the park is completely free, which is a particular bonus, and being open daily from 6am until midnight it's perfect for morning joggers, family days out and romantic evening strolls alike. You can even take in a bit of education while you're there. Look out for the plaques positioned around the pier that tell how the area has changed over the last 400 years; a great addition for any history enthusiast. The park is a must for any visitor to Charleston, where you'll be able to see why it's so popular for visitors and residents alike. And being right near the Charleston City Market, why not make a day of it and visit them both?

8 Old Exchange Building and Provost Dungeon Is the Old Exchange Building a fancy architectural jewel designed to house 18th-century assemblies? Or is it the ghoulish prison of the Revolution, the place where the martyr Isaac Hayne spent his last night? Or is it the place where George Washington greeted his fellow citizens? And there is no question that slaves were sold for generations next to the very balcony from which the Declaration of Independence was read.

9 Heyward Washington House Located in the downtown Historic District, within the area of the original walled city, this brick double house was built in 1772 by rice planter Daniel Heyward as a town-house for his son, Thomas Heyward, Jr. The City rented it for George Washington's use during the President's week-long Charleston stay, in May 1791, and it has traditionally been called the "Heyward- Washington House." Thomas Heyward, Jr. (1746-1809) was a patriot leader, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and artillery officer with the South Carolina militia during the American Revolution. Captured when the British took Charleston in 1780, he was exiled to St. Augustine, Florida, but was exchanged in 1781. Heyward sold the house in 1794. It was acquired by the Museum in 1929, opened the following year as Charleston's first historic house museum, and was recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1978. Here you will experience a magnificent collection of Charleston- made furniture including the priceless Holmes Bookcase, considered to be the finest example of American-made furniture. Other buildings on the site include the carriage shed, with an 18th-century well just beneath, and the kitchen building (the only preserved kitchen of its time open to the public in Charleston), which was constructed in the 1740s. The exquisite formal garden features plants familiar to Charlestonians in the late 18th century, and the picturesque surrounding neighborhood was used by Dubose Heyward as the setting for Porgy and Bess.Dubose HeywardPorgy and Bess

10 Nathaniel Russell House Built c.1808 for one of the wealthiest shipping merchants, the Russell House is emblematic of Charleston's unrivalled prosperity in the age of the sailing ship. Its spiral staircase ascends three stories without touching at the walls, and the Adamesque ornamentation of the mantles and cornices is among the most detailed in the city. A long-term restoration is currently underway, focusing on a few isolated areas at a time, which upon completion will make in not only one of the finest Federal houses in America, but one of the most authentically restored as well. Guided tours are conducted by the well-trained staff of the Historic Charleston Foundation.

11 The Battery and White Point Garden Battery Park (also known as The Battery), which includes a park known as White Point Gardens, is a landmark promenade in Charleston, South Carolina famous for its stately antebellum homes. First used as a public park in 1837, it became a place for artillery during the American Civil War. It stretches along the shores of the Charleston peninsula, bordered by the Ashley and Cooper Rivers. Fort Sumter is visible from the Cooper River side and the point, as is Castle Pinckney, the World War II aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-10), Fort Moultrie, and Sullivan's Island.Charleston, South Carolina antebellum homesAmerican Civil WarAshley CooperFort SumterCastle PinckneyWorld War IIaircraft carrierUSS Yorktown (CV-10)Fort MoultrieSullivan's Island In the 18th century, rocks and heavy materials were used to fortify the shore of the Cooper River. In 1838, this area of the Battery, known as High Battery, became a promenade. Before becoming a park, Fort Broughton (ca. 1735) and Fort Wilkins (during the American Revolution and War of 1812) occupied White or Oyster Point, so named because of the piles of bleached oyster shells on the point. This site is now known as White Point Garden(s) and boasts many large oak trees, a bandstand, a few memorials, and pieces of artillery, some of which were used during the United States Civil War.American RevolutionWar of 1812 A monument in White Point Gardens commemorates the hanging near that site of pirate captain Stede Bonnet and his crew in 1718, as well as the 1719 hanging of Richard Worley's pirates. The monument states that 29 of Bonnet's crew were executed close by. Although 29 of Bonnet's crew were sentenced to death, the evidence suggests that only 22 were actually hanged.Stede BonnetRichard Worley

12 The Citadel In response to a slave rebellion plot a municipal guard of 150 men was established in Charleston in 1822. Half the men were stationed in an arsenal called the citadel. Later, the South Carolina legislature replaced the expensive guardsmen with less expensive cadets and the arsenal was turned over to the newly established South Carolina Military Academy. [6][7] On December 20, 1842, the South Carolina Legislature passed an Act "to convert the Arsenal at Columbia, and the citadel and magazine in and near Charleston, into Military Schools" thereby transforming the two State Arsenals into the South Carolina Military Academy. The act specified: [6][7]South Carolina Legislature That the students when admitted, shall be formed into a military corps, and shall constitute the public guard of the Arsenal at Columbia, and of the Citadel and Magazine in and near guard effectually, the public arms and other property at the places aforsaid… The first 20 cadets reported to The Academy, then located at Marion Square in downtown Charleston, on March 20, 1843. The name of the college was officially changed in 1910 to "The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina". The word "Academy" had become synonymous with secondary schools, and the public had the misconception that the South Carolina Military Academy was a preparatory school. [9] When South Carolina seceded from the Union in December 1860, Major Robert Anderson moved his garrison of U.S. troops to Fort Sumter and requested reinforcements from the federal government. On January 9, 1861, SC Academy cadets George Edward Haynsworth and Samuel Bonneau Pickens were present when their unit fired two large cannon from their Morris Island station at the U.S. steamer, the Star of the West, preventing it from reaching Fort Sumter with troops and supplies and thus firing what are considered the first shots of the Civil War. [9]South Carolina seceded from the UnionMajor Robert AndersonFort SumterStar of the West On January 28, 1861, the Corps of Cadets of The SC Academy was made part of the military organization of the state and named the Battalion of State Cadets. The Academy continued to operate as a military academy, but classes were often disrupted when the governor called the cadets into military service. Mounting and manning heavy guns, performing guard duty, providing security and escorting prisoners were among the services performed by the cadets. They were known as the Battalion of State Cadets and participated in the following engagements from 1861 to 1865. As a result of these services, The Citadel is authorized to carry nine Confederate battle streamers: In early December 1864, Governor Bonham ordered the Battalion of State Cadets to Tulifinny Creek to join a small Confederate force defending the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. On December 7 and December 9, the cadets fought Union forces, successfully defending the rail line and forcing Union forces to withdraw. The cadets suffered eight casualties at Tulifinny Creek. The battalion was commended for its display of discipline and gallantry under fire and won the admiration of the troops who fought with them. The flag of the Corps of Cadets includes eight battle streamers, representing these engagements, and one streamer representing the Confederate States Army.Confederate forceUnion On February 18, 1865, the school ceased operation as a college when Union troops entered Charleston and occupied the site. Following the war, the Board of Visitors eventually regained possession of The Citadel campus, and the South Carolina Legislature passed an act to reopen the college. The 1882 session began with an enrollment of 185 cadets. In the war with Spain in 1898, more Citadel alumni volunteered for service than were needed. In World War I, Citadel graduates were among the first contingents of American troops to fight with the English and French divisions. By that time, The Citadel had outgrown its campus on Marion Square, despite numerous building additions. In 1918, the city of Charleston offered the state of South Carolina 176 acres (71 ha) on the banks of the Ashley River for a new campus on the condition that the state fund the construction of a new Citadel campus there. The state accepted the offer on February 26, 1919, and allotted $300,000 towards the construction of a new campus. The college moved to its current location in 1922.war with SpainWorld War IAshley River The title of the head of The Citadel was changed from Superintendent to President in 1921, when The Citadel moved to its present location. Col Oliver J. Bond was the last Superintendent and the first President of The Citadel.Col Oliver J. Bond Citadel graduates have performed military service for their country in major conflicts. The entire class of 1944 was inducted into the U.S. armed forces during World War II, and only two members graduated.

13 Middleton Place The Gardens at Middleton Place Middleton Place is a National Historic Landmark and home to America’s Oldest Landscaped Gardens. The Garden Club of America has called the 65 acres “the most important and most interesting garden in America”. Centuries-old camellias bloom in the winter months and azaleas blaze on the hillside above the Rice Mill Pond in the spring. In summer, kalmia, magnolias, crepe myrtles and roses accent a landscape magnificent throughout the year. The Gardens have been planned so that there is something blooming at Middleton Place year-round. House Museum Built in 1755, the House Museum interprets four generations of Middleton Family, with extraordinary family furniture, silver, porcelain, rare books and portraits on display. Birthplace of a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Middleton Place and the Middletons have played an important role in American history. The property has miraculously remained under the same family stewardship for some 320 years, and today, successfully preserves history for visitors to enjoy. Plantation Stableyards In the newly rejuvenated 18th and 19th century Plantation Stableyards costumed interpreters demonstrate the skills once performed by enslaved Africans. The Stableyards bring to life the sights and sounds of a Low Country rice plantation. Craft artisans include a weaver, blacksmith, potter, and cooper/carpenter. Many heritage breeds are found in the living history Plantation Stableyards including Cashmere goats, Guinea Hogs, River Water Buffalo, Brown Swiss and Jersey cows, as well as Dominique and Rhode Island Red chickens.

14 Magnolia Plantation and Gardens Welcome to Magnolia Plantation and Gardens. Founded in 1676 by the Drayton family, Magnolia Plantation has survived the centuries and witnessed the history of our nation unfold before it from the American Revolution through the Civil War and beyond. It is the oldest public tourist site in the Lowcountry, and the oldest public gardens in America, opening its doors to visitors in 1870 to view the thousands of beautiful flowers and plants in its famous gardens. So join us here at Magnolia Plantation to experience the beauty of its gardens and its rich history today.

15 Drayton Hall Plantation Drayton Hall, in the South Carolina "Lowcountry" and about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Charleston, South Carolina and directly across the Ashley River from North Charleston, South Carolina, is one of the most handsome examples of Palladian architecture in North America.Charleston, South CarolinaAshley RiverNorth Charleston, South CarolinaPalladian architecture North America The house was built for John Drayton (c. 1715-1779) [3], begun in 1738 and completed in 1742, using both free and slave labor. The seven-bay double pile plantation house stands in a 630-acre (2.5 km 2 ) site that is part of the plantation based on indigo and rice. Drayton Hall is the only plantation house on the Ashley River to survive the American Revolution and Civil War intact. Seven generations of Drayton heirs preserved the house in all but original condition, though the flanking outbuildings have not survived: an earthquake destroyed the laundry house in 1886 and a hurricane destroyed the kitchen in 1893. [4] [3]indigoriceAshley RiverAmerican RevolutionCivil War [4] The house has a double projecting (and recessed) portico on the west facade, which faces away from the river and toward the land side approach from Ashley River Road. The double projecting portico resembles a similar feature at Villa Cornaro, a country estate near Venice, Italy, designed by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio in 1551. The floor plan of Drayton Hall is Palladian as well, perhaps derived from Plate 38 of James Gibbs' A Book of Architecture [5], the influential patternbook published in London in 1728. [6] A large central entrance stair hall with a symmetrical divided staircase is backed by a large saloon, flanked by square and rectangular chambers. [7]. Pedimented chimneypieces in the house are in the tectonic manner popularized by William Kent. There is fine plasterwork in several of the rooms of the main floor, which is set above a raised basement.Villa CornaroAndrea Palladio [5] [6] [7] William Kent Located on SC 61 and included in the Ashley River Historic District, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. [2][8]SC 61Ashley River Historic District National Historic Landmark [2][8] The South Carolina Department of Archives and History claims that Drayton Hall is "without question one of the finest of all surviving plantation houses in America". [9] [9] Drayton Hall is managed by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, which opened the house to the public in 1977 and presents both sides of the historic plantation economy exemplified by the Draytons, both white and black. The first guide to the house, Drayton Hall, was published in 2005.National Trust for Historic Preservation

16 Fort Moultrie Fort Moultrie is the name of a series of citadels on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina. The first fort, built of palmetto logs, inspired the flag and nickname (Palmetto State) of South Carolina. It is named in honour of the commander in the Battle of Sullivan's Island, General William Moultrie.citadelsSullivan's Island, South CarolinaCharleston, South Carolina palmettoflagSouth CarolinaBattle of Sullivan's IslandWilliam Moultrie Fort Moultrie is the only area of the National Park System where the entire 171-year history of American seacoast defense (1776–1947) can be traced. American Revolution South Carolina patriots began to build a fort to guard Charleston, South Carolina, harbor in 1776. British Admiral Sir Peter Parker with nine British warships attacked the fort—still unnamed and incomplete—on June 28, 1776, near the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. The soft palmetto logs did not crack under bombardment but rather absorbed the shot; cannon balls reportedly even bounced off the walls of the structure. William Moultrie commanded the 2nd South Carolina Regiment for the revolutionary patriots in this battle. The fort took its name Fort Moultrie in his honor. Charleston locals celebrate 'Carolina Day' to commemorate the bravery of the defenders of the fort.Charleston, South CarolinaPeter ParkerAmerican Revolutionary WarWilliam MoultrieCarolina Day The British eventually captured Fort Moultrie in the Siege of Charleston in spring 1780. Nevertheless, the colonists won the war, and British troops departed in 1782.Siege of Charleston Early federal period Great BritainGreat Britain and France began another war in 1793, heightening tensions. The United States of America thence embarked on a systematic fortification of important harbors. Atop the decayed original Fort Moultrie, the Army completed a new fort in 1798; the Army also built nineteen other new forts along the Atlantic coast. A hurricane destroyed Fort Moultrie in 1804, and a brick fort replaced it in 1809.France Fort Moultrie changed little over the next five decades. The Army altered the parapet and modernized the armament, but defense of Charleston centered increasingly around newly created Fort Sumter. By the time of the American Civil War, Fort Moultrie, Fort Sumter, Fort Johnson, and Castle Pinckney surrounded and defended Charleston.Fort SumterAmerican Civil WarCastle Pinckney Fort Moultrie nevertheless began to record meteorological observations in the early 1820s. The Army detained Seminole Indian fighter Osceola and some fellow Seminole prisoners at Fort Moultrie late 1837. Osceola died of malaria in January 1838; the Army buried his corpse at Fort Moultrie and thereafter maintained his grave.Osceola Civil War South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860. Unlike their counterparts at the other forts, defenders of Fort Moultrie chose not to surrender to the South Carolina forces. On December 26, 1860, Union Major Robert Anderson moved his garrison at Fort Moultrie to the stronger Fort Sumter. On February 8, 1861, South Carolina joined other seceded Deep Southern states to form the Confederate States of America. In April 1861, Confederate troops shelled Fort Sumter into submission and the American Civil War began.Robert AndersonFort SumterConfederate States of AmericaAmerican Civil War In April 1863, Federal ironclads and shore batteries began a bombardment of Fort Moultrie and the other forts around Charleston harbor. Over the ensuing twenty months, Union bombardment reduced Fort Sumter to a rubble pile and pounded Fort Moultrie below a sand hill, which protected it against further Union bombardment. The Rifled cannon proved its superiority to brickwork fortifications but not to the endurance of the Confederate artillerymen who continued to man Fort Moultrie. In February 1865, the Confederate Army finally abandoned the rubble of Fort Moultrie and evacuated the city of Charleston, South Carolina.ironcladsRifled cannon Postbellum period The Army modernized Fort Moultrie in the 1870s with huge rifled cannon and deep concrete bunkers. Further modernization in the 1880s turned all of Sullivan's Island surrounding the old fort into a military complex. The fort evolved with the times through and beyond World War II. Seacoast defense of the United States ceased as a viable strategy by 1947.World War II

17 All information came from various websites using a Google search.

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