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By: Amee Patel Dasree Ramdass

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1 By: Amee Patel Dasree Ramdass
India At It’s Finest By: Amee Patel Dasree Ramdass

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"India is the cradle of human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most astrictive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only! " -Mark Twain 1.

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WHERE ARE YOU? Location 1 of India: 7th largest country in the world Located in Asia next to China and Pakistan Covers an area of 3.28 million sq kilometers The mainland of India extends between 8°N and 37°N Latitude and 68°E and 97° E Longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer 23°N divides India almost into two halves. The land frontier of the country is 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline is 7, 517 km. Indian peninsula tapers southward resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two water bodies - the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. In India, there is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains, and a number of islands. Broadly the physical features of India can be divided into five physical units - The Great Mountains of the North, The North Indian Plain, The Peninsular Plateau, The Coastal Plains, and The Islands. 1.

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National Anthem/Flag Jana-Gana-Mana-Adhinayaka, Jaya He Bharata-Bhagya-Vidhata Punjab-Sindhu-Gujarata Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Ucchhala-Jaladhi Taranga Tava Subha Name Jage Tava Subha Ashisha Mage Gahe Tava Jaya Gatha. Jana-Gana-Mangala Dayaka, Jaya He Bharata-Bhagya-Vidhata, Jaya He, Jaya He, Jaya He, Jaya Jaya Jaya, Jaya He Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Dispenser of India's destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal; It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, Mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is chanted by The waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise. The saving of all people waits in thy hand, Thou dispenser of India's destiny, Victory, victory, victory to thee. 1.

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Brief History of India The Indus valley civilization saw its origin in the holy land now known as India around 2500 BC. The descendents of the people inhabiting the Indus River valley later migrated to the south of India. Later, in 1500 BC, the Aryan tribes soon began to come to the east , along the Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. By 500 BC, the whole of northern India was a civilized land where people had knowledge of iron implements and worked as labor, voluntarily or otherwise.  The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. (Ashoka) united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the sub – continent for over 700 years. Britain ruled over India during the 19th century, and the Islam people created a new country called Pakistan. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was given in 1947.  2. 3.

6 Facts On India Human Development Index (HDI): 0.586 as of 2013 (Ranked 35) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: $ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Total: $2,047 in billions as of currently Total Population: 1,236,344,631 as of July 2014 Literacy Rate: Age 15 and over can read and write Total population: 62.8% Government type: Federal Republic Capital: New Delhi The Bengal Tiger is the national animal. The lotus is the national flower. The culture 2 of India is the way of life of the people of India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. 4. 5. 6.

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Religions There are various types of religions 3 across India. Lets take a look at a few: This map shows where all the religions reside in India 2.

8 Hinduism Hinduism 4 is the oldest living religion in the world.
Hindu means river and the “ism” was added by Britain in the 19th century. About 80% of the Indian population regard themselves as Hindu. Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, governed by Karma. The main Hindu texts is the Vedas (knowledge). Worships more than one god/ goddesses (Shiva, Krishna, Rama, Durga, Kali) 330 million gods Purpose of life is to attain liberation (moksa) from the cycle of reincarnation  Major festivals: Holi (Spring) and Diwali Hindu practices such as bathing in the morning, do Yoga, avoid meat etc. promote health and hygiene. Hindus hold the belief of the four Vedas (Rig, Sama, Yajur & Atharva) 2. 3.

9 Islam Islam 5 About 13.4 percent population
The two Major sections of Muslims are Sunni and Shia. Muslim festivals: Ramzan (Ramadan), Muharram, Id-e-Milad and Bakr-id. Prayers are offered in the mosques. The process of converting Indians to Islam began in the 8th century, when the Arabs began invading north India and present day Pakistan.

10 Christianity Apostles, St. Judas Thomas, arrived in India and converted Indians into Christianity. Most of the Indian were converted to Christianity 6 by the missionaries who arrived in India with the European powers from 15th century. About 2 percent are Christians

11 Sikhism The word 'Sikh' in the Punjabi language means 'disciple‘.
There is only One God. Sikhism was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak in the 15th Century CE. Customs 2 of Sikihism: Kesh (uncut hair) Kara (a steel bracelet) Kanga (a wooden comb) Kaccha - (cotton underwear) Kirpan (steel sword) Holidays: Vaisakhi (Sikh New Year)

12 Buddhism Buddhism 7 started around 520 BCE. This refers to the period of time after Sakyamuni attained enlightenment and started teaching.  The Three Jewels of Buddhism are the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.  Meditation is a major form of life. Four Noble Truths: The truth of suffering (Dukkha) The truth of the origin of suffering (Samudāya) The truth of the cessation of suffering (Nirodha) The truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (Magga)

13 Language Sanskrit India is a multilingual 8 state . Hindi (41%)
English Gujarati - Language of Gujarat (4.5%) Punjabi - Official language of Punjab (2.8%) Bengali- The state language of West Bengal (8.1%) Assamese - Official language of Assam (1.3%) Dogri, Urdu - The language of Jammu and Kashmir (5%) Oriya - State language of Orissa (3.2%) Marathi - Language of Maharashtra (7%) India is a multilingual 8 state . Kannada - Official language of Karnataka (3.7%) Tamil - State language of Tamil Nadu (5.9%) Telugu - It is the official language of Andhra Pradesh (7.2%) Malayalam - It is the official language of Kerala (3.2%) Konkani - The state language of Goa Manipuri - The official language of Manipur Khasi - The official language of Meghalaya Mizo - The official language of Mizoram Lotha - The official language of Nagaland

14 Map of the different types of languages and where they exist!

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Ethnicities India is a fascinating country where people of many different communities and religions live together in unity. Indian Population is polygenetic and is an amazing amalgamation of various races and cultures.   The 6 ethnic groups are: Negrito Proto - Australoids or Austrics Mongoloids Mediterranean or Dravidian Western Brachycephals Nordic Aryans 1.

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Ethnicities There are many diverse ethnicity 9 groups which include: Negrito- from Africa were the earliest people to have come to India Proto-Australoids or Austrics- These groups were the next to come to India after the Negritos.  They are people with wavy hair lavishly distributed all over their brown bodies, long headed with low foreheads and prominent eye ridges, noses with low and broad roots, thick jaws, large palates and teeth and small chins.  Mongoloids- These people are found in the North eastern part of India in the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, and Tripura. Mediterranean or Dravidian- These are the people of South India. They have been believed to come before the Aryans. They have different sub-groups like the Paleo-Mediterranean, the true Mediterranean, and the Oriental Mediterranean.  Western Brachycephals- These include the Alpinoids, Dinarics and Armenoids. The Parsis and Kodavas also fall in this category. They are the broad headed people living mainly on the western side of the country such as the Ganga Valley and the delta, parts of Kashmir, Kathiawar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.  Nordic Aryans- This group were the last one to immigrate to India. They came to India somewhere between 2000 and 1500 B.C. They are now mainly found in the northern and central part of India. 1.

17 Centripetal/ Centrifugal Forces
Religion: Islam/Hindu in India Territorial Disputes: Kashmir dispute between Pakistan and India Language: Over 28 languages Centripetal Force 10 Religion: Hinduism in India or Nepal Language: Hindi or English in India Expressions of national pride/ symbols : Cricket in India 1.

18 Local Culture Local cultures 12 in India include:
Gujarati’s in Gujarat Punjab’s in Punjabi Tamil’s in Tamil Muslims in Kashmir 1.

19 Popular Cultures Example of popular cultures 13 in India are:
The Indian Cricket Team Animals on the streets Bollywood The Taj Mahal Weddings 1.

20 Folk Culture There are many folk cultures 14 including customs and traditions in India: Diwali- festival of lights Holi- festival of colors Bhai Bheej- celebration of bond of everlasting love and affection between brother and his sister 1.

21 Material culture 15 consists of clothing
Women wear colorful silk sarees and shalwar kameez. The traditional clothing for men is the dhoti, an unstitched piece of cloth about 5 yards long that is tied around the waist and legs. Men also wear a kurta, a loose shirt that is worn about knee-length.

Pitthi is a ritual performed for good luck. It is a paste made mainly of turmeric, chickpea flour and rose water. Family members and well-wishers of the bride and groom apply the paste on the bride/groom’s skin. This yellow paste is thought to brighten and even the skin tone and is applied one of the days prior to the wedding ceremony. The Mehndi event is a colorful and fun celebration held the night before the wedding, which is traditionally celebrated by the women on the bride’s side of the family. These designs symbolize joy, beauty, spiritual awakening and offering. The bride’s mehendi sometimes goes half way to her knees. 1.

23 Vivaah The Sangeet Ceremony:
This custom heightens the excitement of wedding festivities. The custom is usually a one night function. At the bride's home women relatives and friends play the dholki and sing suhaag, which is a traditional folk song. Songs include 'jokes' about the in-laws, and would be husband how to have a successful marriage like and songs about the bride leaving her parents home. Similarly the women at the groom's home sing songs called ghoriya. 1.

24 Vivaah The Wedding Ceremony:
The groom arrives at the entrance of the wedding venue on a horse. The baraat is met by the bride’s family at the entrance to the wedding venue. The bride enters the hall and is escorted to the mandap by her maternal uncle and aunt. The bride and groom exchange floral garlands, signifying their acceptance of one another. The bride’s father pours sacred water in his daughter’s hand and places her hand in the groom’s hand, officially giving away his most precious gift to the groom. 1.

25 Vivaah Saptapadi (The Seven Sacred Steps):
The couple takes seven steps together, taking a sacred vow with each step: Together we will live with respect for one another. Together we will develop mental, physical and spiritual balance. Together we will prosper, acquire wealth and share our accomplishments. Together we will acquire happiness, harmony and knowledge through mutual love. Together we will raise strong, virtuous children. Together we will be faithful to one another and exercise self-restraint and longevity. Together we will remain lifelong partners and achieve salvation. 1.

26 Popular Tourist Destinations
 India Gate (42m), New Delhi stands in the middle of a crossroad. It holds the 70,000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives fighting for the British Army during the World War I. It was designed by Edwin Lutyens. The entire arch stands on a low base of red Bharatpur stone and rises in stages to a huge moulding. Both sides of the arch have INDIA (1914 left) and India (1919 right). Around the structure is a large expanse of lush green lawns, which is a popular picnic spot. East of Nehru place in New Delhi, this temple is built in the shape of a lotus flower and is the last of seven Major Bahai's temples built around the world. Completed in1986 it is set among the lush green landscaped 16 gardens. The structure is made up of pure white marble and architect Furiburz Sabha chose the lotus as the symbol common to Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. Around the blooming petals there are nine pools of water, which light up, in natural light. It looks spectacular at dusk when it is flood lit.

27 Popular Tourist Destinations
Marari Beach is a beach in Alappuzha District of Kerala, India. Barely 11 km from Alappuzha town, this sleepy little village, is a wondeful location for a vacation. In Marari Beach, you'll find, is the one place where you can unwind completely, without the trying bit. You can't watch TV to relax, for example. There isn't one in your room. You can’t plunge into a whirl of holiday activities like surfboarding or beach parties.  1.

28 Food From All Over The Country
Food in India originate in many different states. It varies the same way India’s geography, culture, climate, and religion varies. Usually, Indians refer to their plates as “thali”…. We have dishes called the South Indian thali, the Gujarati thali, the Punjabi thali, etc. 1.

29 Roti with Achar and Yogurt
Breakfast Roti with Achar and Yogurt Poha

30 Typical Lunch Pani Puri Vada Pav

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South Indian Thali 1.

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GujaratI Thali 1.

33 Punjabi Thali 1.

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Music The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk music, pop, and Indian classical music. Singers in Bollywood: Alka Yagnik Asha Bhosle Shreya Goshal Kishore Kumar Kumar Sanu Lata Mangeshkar Mohammed Rafi Sonu Nigam Udit Narayan 1.

35 Bollywood The Indian film industry is the largest in the world.
Celebrating its 101 years Produced a huge amount of movies Some actors/ actresses: Amitabh Bachchan Shah Rukh Khan Salman Khan Katrina Kaif Ashwariya Rai Deepika Padukone Various types of songs and dancing

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