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Aim: How did the Church become the most powerful force in Europe? Do Now: Documents 1,2,3 HW: Read chapter 8, section 4 Reading on Medieval village.

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Presentation on theme: "Aim: How did the Church become the most powerful force in Europe? Do Now: Documents 1,2,3 HW: Read chapter 8, section 4 Reading on Medieval village."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aim: How did the Church become the most powerful force in Europe? Do Now: Documents 1,2,3 HW: Read chapter 8, section 4 Reading on Medieval village

2 Vocabulary Clergy – ordained officials of a religion Sacraments – special Christian ceremonies Tithe – church tax, usually 10% of earnings Heresy – the holding of beliefs considered wrong by the Church Excommunicate – to expel a person from the Church Friar – traveling monk, preached to poor in towns Simony – selling of Church offices Investiture – ceremony to give someone an official rank or position

3 Construction began:1163 Completed :1345 Notre Dame de Paris:

4 Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyalties Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of Christendom Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives Christian Beliefs Religion in the Middle Ages

5 Political role The medieval church had broad political powers and performed many governmental functions

6 Economic role By the 1200s, the church was the wealthiest institution in Europe and a leading landowner St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

7 The Church Hierarchy The clergy were organized in a strict hierarchy of rank – the parish priest was at the bottom Saint John Marie-Baptiste Vianney is the patron saint of parish priests

8 Catholic Church Hierarchy The Pope Cardinals Archbishops Bishops Priests

9 The Church Hierarchy The priest directly served the people in his parish and could administer five of the seven sacraments

10 The Church Hierarchy The bishop managed a diocese and performed the sacraments of confirmation and holy orders

11 The Church Hierarchy Kings or powerful nobles would select bishops on the basis of family connections or political power

12 The Church Hierarchy An archbishop managed a group of several dioceses called an archdiocese The chief diocese in a province. To help things run smoothly, one bishop in each province has seniority. He's an archbishop and his diocese is an archdiocese.

13 The Church Hierarchy The pope held supreme authority and was advised by the curia, counselors from the highest ranks of the clergy Pope Innocent Confirms Rule of Francis, circa 1300

14 The Church Hierarchy The curia’s most important and powerful members were cardinals, who advised the pope on legal and spiritual matters Raphael, Portrait of a Cardinal, 1510-12 Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi, Raphael 1518

15 Monasticism The church had two types of clergy: secular - priests, bishops, and the pope regular - monks

16 Monasticism Monks and nuns served God through fasting, prayer, and self-denial A medieval depiction of a monk at work in a monastic scriptorium

17 Monasticism Monasticism refers to the way of life in religious communities - monks in monasteries and nuns in convents

18 Monasticism Benedict established a monastery in the 500s; the Benedictine Rule governs monk’s lives

19 The Church and Medieval Life – Social role Church leaders were feudal lords and political advisors - popes held political and spiritual power over monarchs

20 The Church and Medieval Life Church courts followed canon law and could excommunicate a person or issue an interdict against an entire region Galileo in front of the Roman Inquisition, 12 April 1633 Painting by Cristiano Banti

21 The Church and Medieval Life Heretics were people who denied the church’s principles or who preached beliefs not approved by the church

22 The Church and Medieval Life The church had the power to tax; parish priests collected a tithe - one-tenth of a person’s income

23 The Church and Medieval Life The clergy was involved with social work and caring for the poor and needy

24 The Church and Medieval Life Major problems in the church were lay investiture and simony Jan Hus, a Bohemian preacher who called for Church reforms, was declared a heretic by the Church. Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance and burned at the stake in 1415.

25 The Church and Medieval Life In the 1200s, two religious groups were dedicated to church reform - the Franciscans and the Dominicans The pope approving the Franciscan order St. Dominic founded the Order of Preachers, commonly known as the Dominican Order

26 The Church and Medieval Life Dominicans sought out heretics in what became known as the Inquisition

27 Not only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve conditions. 900s, 1000s, pope had little authority Considered head of church, but local bishops made most important religious decisions Papacy not held in high regard Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were nobles concerned with increasing own power Papacy 1049, first of series of clever, capable popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, Leo IX Believed that Europe’s clergy had become corrupt, wanted to reform it Concerned with simony, buying and selling of church offices by bishops Church Reforms Growth of Papal Power

28 Excommunication Bishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicated, cast out of church No greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages Person excommunicated could not take part in Eucharist, could not be saved Conflict One who rejected Leo’s authority, bishop of Constantinople 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church in two Those who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics; those who sided with bishop, Orthodox Reforms Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in past Reforms brought him into conflict with political, religious leaders Many bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to act Power and Conflict

29 Popes and Politics Popes gained influence over people’s religious lives, also over European politics Pope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters Pope also ruled territories, like Papal States – Had ability to raise armies to defend territories – Several popes hired Normans to fight wars – Crusades against Muslims launched by popes

30 Although popes had increased their power, they still came into conflict with political leaders. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way members of the clergy were chosen. Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergy Kings chose most bishops Holy Roman emperor named several popes Tradition Reform popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose religious officials Issue became critical during Pope Gregory VII’s pontificate Reform Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city of Milan Gregory did not approve, removed bishop Henry disputed Gregory’s authority Bishop of Milan Conflict over Bishops

31 Excommunication Gregory’s response was to excommunicate Henry Called on clergy, nobility of Germany to replace emperor Bishops Gregory, Henry continued fighting over bishops for years Later popes reached compromise: local clergy would choose bishops Canossa Fearing he would lose his throne, Henry traveled to Canossa to beg forgiveness Reluctantly, Gregory lifted excommunication Power Most important outcome: Gregory stood up to emperor The pope had become one of strongest figures in Europe Gregory and Henry

32 “The continuity and the authority of the Church of Rome stood out in marked contrast against the short-lived kingdoms which rose and fell in the early Middle Ages.” Write a short response to this statement by a historian of the Middle Ages.

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