2 SuperpowersAfter WWII, the USA and the USSR emerged as superpowers – nations stronger than other powerful nationsEach created a military alliance made up of nations they protected or occupiedThe USA helped form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), comprised of W. European alliesversus
3 Warsaw Pact Iron Curtain USSR signed the Warsaw Pact with E. European countriesThe imaginary line between the democratic west and the communist East was called the Iron CurtainThe Soviet Union crushed any revolts that challenged its supremacy in Eastern Europe
5 Arms Race Superpowers engaged in weapons race Both sides developed nuclear weaponsTo reduce the threat of war, the two sides held disarmament talksOne agreement was intended to limit the use of anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs)ABMs were used to shoot down missiles launched by hostile nations
9 The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red
10 A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a collection of nuclear weapons carried on a single intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) or a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). Using a MIRV warhead, a single launched missile can strike several targets, or fewer targets redundantly. By contrast a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile.Minuteman III MIRV launch sequence: 1. The missile launches out of its silo by firing its first stage boost motor (A). 2. About 60 seconds after launch, the 1st stage drops off and the second stage motor (B) ignites. The missile shroud is ejected. 3. About 120 seconds after launch, the third stage motor (C) ignites and separates from the 2nd stage. 4. About 180 seconds after launch, third stage thrust terminates and the Post-Boost Vehicle (D) separates from the rocket. 5. The Post-Boost Vehicle maneuvers itself and prepares for re-entry vehicle (RV) deployment. 6. The RVs, as well as decoys and chaff, are deployed during backaway. 7. The RVs and chaff re-enter the atmosphere at high speeds and are armed in flight. 8. The nuclear warheads detonate, either as air bursts or ground bursts.
11 Anti-Ballistic Missiles ABMs were considered a threat because they could give one side more protection, which might encourage it to attackDuring the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan proposed a missile defense program called “Star Wars”Other agreements limited the number of nuclear weapons that nations could maintain, which eased Cold War tensions
12 Anti-Ballistic Missiles The easing of tensions was called the era of détenteDétente is a relaxing of Cold War tensions during the 1970sBoth superpowers were talking more with less direct hostile threatsDétente ended, however, when the USSR invaded Afghanistan in 1979
17 Cuba and Fidel CastroDuring the 1950s, Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba and became the Cuban leaderTo bring down Cuba’s communist regime, U.S. President John F. Kennedy supported a CIA-backed invasion of Cuba (Bay of Pigs)(1961), but the invasion failedOne year later, the Soviets shipped nuclear missiles to Cuba causing fear of a nuclear war
24 Photos of Cuban Missile Sites Taken from U-2 Spyplane
25 Cuba and Fidel CastroThe world was on the brink of a nuclear war for thirteen daysThe U.S. navy blockaded Cuba with warshipsFinally, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove the missilesThe USA agreed to remove Jupiter nuclear missiles from Turkey
28 Spreading CommunismUSSR wanted to spread communist ideology around the worldWhen Khrushchev came to power, he eased censorship and increase toleranceHowever, repression returned under Leonid Brezhnev, the next Soviet leaderAmerican leaders pursued a policy of containmentThis was a strategy of keeping communism from spreading to other nations (to “contain” it)
30 Red ScareA “Red Scare” in the USA resulted in Senator Joseph McCarthy leading an internal hunt for communists in the government and militaryThe House (of Representatives) Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) also sought out communist sympathizersPeople suspected of being communists were called to testify before a congressional committee as to their alleged activities in government, society, business, etc.
31 Powerpoint Questions (13 points) 1. What were the United States and the Soviet Union called?2 The two opposing military alliances were called ??? and ??? (2 points)3. An imaginary line that divided Europe between democratic and communist countries was called the ???4. What are ABMs? Describe.5. What defense system did President Ronald Reagan propose in the 1980s?6. A relaxation of tensions is called ???
32 Powerpoint Questions (13 points) 7. What did the USSR do that nearly triggered a nuclear war in 1962?8. Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis?9. What tactic did the USA employ to respond to the crisis?
33 Powerpoint Questions (13 points) 10. According to the video in this Powerpoint (slide #18), what secret agreement did Kennedy and Krushchev make regarding American missiles?11. Who became the next leader of the USSR?12. What was the “Red Scare”?