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Lesson One – The North and South in Pre-Civil War

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1 Lesson One – The North and South in Pre-Civil War
Civil War Unit Lesson One – The North and South in Pre-Civil War Unit Objectives: 1.The students will gain an understanding of how to use the processes and resources of historical inquiry. 2. Students will develop an awareness of how science, technology, and economic activity have developed, changed, and affected societies throughout history. 3. Students will gain an overall understanding of the Civil War and its effects on our country.

2 Objectives Students will recognize that the “North” and “South” were very different places before The Civil War. I Can:
I can identify characteristics of the North and South by creating an entry for my interactive notebook. Lesson contents from Karla’s Kreations © 2015 interactive notebook Pre-Civil War Times Notebook Directions •  Have students cut out the heading labels and the 5-flap North and South pages. •  Once it is cut out, students need to fold the 5-flaps toward the center. Once they have done that, then students will write the headings on the flaps- Jobs, Slavery, Transportation, Land, and Cities. (After that I had students turn the paper over and color the flap areas (blue for the North and gray for the South). •  Then together write the information under each flap (See sample page). •  Have students glue the heading label at the top of the notebook page. •  Once all the information is written, have students put glue on the back side (the pentagon shape only) and glue into notebook. •  If desired, have students write the “I can” statement at the bottom of the page.

3 Vocabulary Words Slavery - a practice in which one person (a slave) is owned by another person Free laborer - a worker who was not owned by another person, they were paid for the work they did Plantation - large area used to grow crops such as rice, tobacco, and cotton Factory - a building used for manufacturing goods such as turning cotton into cloth Slave - a person who is owned by another human being, often required to work long hours with no pay and not allowed to leave owner’s property Slave owner - a person who owned another human being

4 Life in the Americas Time was moving along and the way people were living was changing. People had settled in to the America territories and life was different in the northern and southern parts. The Civil War was a war that was fought between two parts of the same country. America had a Civil War that was fought between the Northern and the Southern states. Over the next two weeks we will be studying the Civil War, what the war was about, who fought in it, and why it happened

5 The North The north favored small farms rather than large plantations. They needed less workers to farm their lands. Most northern households that owned slaves usually had at least two. They did housework and helped in small businesses. These first slaves were probably freed after a few years. Gradually the northerns began to see less and less need for slaves.

6 North Pre-Civil War Jobs Cities Transportation Slavery Land
 Less than half in farming Manufacturing Cities Many large cities Transportation Most railroads were in the North Slavery Many anti-slavery groups Immigrant labor instead Land Better for small farms Additional Information needed to fill in the organizers: Northern soil favored small farms rather than large plantations. •  Industry flourished; there were more abundant natural resources •  Many large cities were established •  By 1860, 25% of all northerners lived in urban areas •  Between the percentage of people working in agriculture dropped from 70% to 40% •  Slavery had died out in the North. It was replaced in cities and factories by immigrant labor from Europe. •  7 out of 8 immigrants settled in the North. •  Transportation was easier. More than two-thirds of the railroads were in the North. •  More Whig/Republicans •  More people had careers in business, medicine, education and engineering.

7 The South In the south they had large farms called plantations. Slaves were vital to their way of life. They worked plantations that produced crops, such as tobacco, rice, sugar, or cotton. Running a plantation took a lot of work and money. Slaves became the cheapest and efficient form of labor. As a result, many plantation owners became very wealthy, Enslavement usually lasted a person’s entire life. Even children born to slaves were enslaved.

8 South Pre-Civil War Jobs Cities Transportation Slavery Land
Most in farming Cities Very few large cities Ports Transportation Fewer railroads Difficult except by water Slavery Labor force for large plantations Land Fertile soil Good for tobacco and cotton Teacher Notes: The South •  Fertile soil and warm climate •  Ideal for large scale farms and crops like cotton and tobacco •  Agriculture was so profitable there was no need for industrial development •  80% of the labor force worked on farms •  Although about two-thirds of Southerners owned no slaves, by the 1860s slavery was inextricably tied to the regions economy and culture •  There were almost as many blacks in the South as whites. (4 million blacks and 5 million whites) •  No large cities except for New Orleans; most cities were on rivers or coasts because of shipping ports •  Only 10% of people lived in urban areas •  Transportation was difficult except by water •  Only 35% of railroads tracks were in the South •  In the 1860s, the agricultural economy was beginning to stall while the northern manufacturing was experiencing a boom. •  More people in the Democratic party •  Most people in agricultural or military careers

9 Read – Now Let Me Fly Discuss the story. What is a slave?
Who owned slaves? Where did slaves come from? How did the slaves get to America? How would you have felt if you were a slave? What war will we be studying? What country fought in the Civil War? What was the main reason for the war? Tomorrow we will be talking about a woman who helped many slaves escape.

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