2 Thermal Energy Temperature & Heat Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.
3 SI unit for temp. is the Kelvin K = °C (10°C = 283K)°C = K – 273 (10K = -263°C)Thermal Energy – the total of all the kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.
4 Thermal energy relationships As temperature increases, so does thermal energy (because the kinetic energy of the particles increased).Even if the temperature doesn’t change, the thermal energy in a more massive substance is higher (because it is a total measure of energy).
5 Heat The flow of thermal energy from one object to another. Cup gets cooler while hand gets warmerHeatThe flow of thermal energy from one object to another.Heat always flows from warmer to cooler objects.Ice gets warmer while hand gets cooler
8 Types of Heat Transfer Conduction Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct contact. *occurs best in solids
9 Types of Heat Transfer Convection Convection is the transfer of heat through fluids by currents created due to density differences in parts of the fluid. *occurs in liquids and gases onlyHot water rises, cools and falls.Heated air rises, cools and then falls.Cool air falls.
10 Types of Heat Transfer Radiation Radiation is the transfer of heat energy through space as waves of electromagnetic radiation. *the only type that can occur through empty space (example: from the sun)
11 Land heats up and cools down faster than water. Specific HeatSome things heat up or cool down faster than others.Land heats up and cools down faster than water.
12 Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material by one degree (C or K).C water = 4184 J / kg CC sand = 664 J / kg CThis is why land heats up quickly during the day and cools quickly at night and why water takes longer.
13 Specific Heat 50g Al 50g Cu Which take longer to heat to 100°C? (cal/g°C)(J/g°C)Water1.004.18Aluminum0.220.90Copper0.0930.39Silver0.0570.24Gold0.0310.1350g Al 50g CuAluminum has a higher specific heat, so it will take longer to heat up. It will ALSO take longer to cool down.
14 Why does water have such a high specific heat? water metalWater molecules form strong bonds with each other; therefore it takes more heat energy to break them. Metals have weak bonds and do not need as much energy to break them.
15 -q means heat loss +q = heat gain How to calculate changes in thermal energyq = mCpTq = change in thermal energy (heat)m = mass of substanceT = change in temperature (Tf – Ti)Cp = specific heat of substance-q means heat loss +q = heat gain
16 Heat Transfer A 32g silver spoon cools from 60°C to 20°C Heat Transfer A 32g silver spoon cools from 60°C to 20°C. How much heat is lost by the spoon?GIVENm = 32gTi = 60°CTf = 20°Cq = ??C = J/g°CWORKq = mCΔTm = 32gΔT = Tf - TiΔT = 20°C – 60°C = -40°Cq = (32g)(0.235J/g°C)(-40°C)q = J
17 Heat Transfer How much heat is required to warm 230 g of water from 12°C to 90°C? GIVENm = 230gTi = 12°CTf = 90°CQ = ??C = J/g°CWORKq = mCΔTm = 230gΔT = Tf - TiΔT = 90°C – 12°C = 78°Cq = (230g)(4.184J/g°C)(78°C)q = 78,061 J
18 A piece of iron at a temperature of 145°C cools off to 45°C A piece of iron at a temperature of 145°C cools off to 45°C. If the iron has a mass of 10 g and a specific heat of J/g°C, how much heat is given up?GIVENm = 10gTi = 145°CTf = 45°Cq = ??C = J/g°CWORKq = mCΔTm = 10gΔT = Tf - TiΔT = 45°C – 145°C = -100°Cq = (10g)(0.449J/g°C)(-100°C)q = -449 J
19 First, mass and temperature of water are measured A calorimeter is used to help measure the specific heat of a substance.Heat gained = Heat lostFirst, mass and temperature of water are measuredKnowing its q value, its mass, and its T, its Cp can be calculatedThen heated sample is put inside and heat flows into waterThis gives the heat lost by the substanceT is measured for water to help get its heat gain
20 Let’s Practice!A 55.1 g piece of metal is heated to a temp of 45.1°C, and placed into a cup containing 359g of water at 20.0°C. The final temp of the water and metal is 22.3°C.How much heat energy did the water absorb?q = mcΔTq = (359g)(4.18J/g°C)(22.3°C – 20.0°C) = 3.45 x 103JHow much heat energy did the metal release to the water?q lost = q gainedq lost by the metal = x 103JThe q is negative because heat was lost.What is the specific heat of the metal?3.45 x 103J = (55.1g)(C)(22.3°C – 45.1°C)2.75 J/g°C = C
21 Heat of FusionThey Quantity of heat absorbed when a specific quantity of the solid is converted to liquid at its melting point is called its heat of fusion.
22 Heat of VaporizationThe quantity of heat absorbed when a specific quantity of the liquid is converted to gas at the boiling point is called the heat of vaporization.
23 Phase Diagram Gas Water boils Liquid Vaporization Ice metls Solid Fusion