3 The Big Idea: The kingdom of Kush, in the region of Nubia, was first conquered by Egypt but later conquered and ruled Egypt.
4 Main Idea 1: Geography helped early Kush civilization develop in Nubia.
5 South of Egypt along the Nile, Africans established Kush, the first large kingdom in northeast Africa, in the region we now call Nubia.Today, desert covers much of Nubia – located in the present-day country of Sudan.
9 Early Civilization in Nubia Thanks to the Nile’s floods, farming villages thrived all along the Nile by about 3500 BC.Over time some farmers became leaders of their villages.Sometime around 2000 BC one of these leaders took control of other villages and made himself king of Kush.
10 Early Civilization in Nubia Early kings ruled from their capital at Kerma, on the Nile just south of a cataract, or stretch of rapids.The cataracts were natural barriers against invaders.As time passed Kushite society became more complex, with farmers, herders, priests, and artisans.
11 Main Idea 2: Egypt controlled Kush for about 450 years.
12 Kushites traded many products to Egypt, including slaves, gold, copper, stone, ebony (a type of dark, heavy wood) and ivory (a white material taken from elephant tusks)Kush grew wealthy and its army grew stronger. Egypt’s rulers were afraid that a powerful Kush might attack Egypt.
14 The pharaoh Thutmose I attacked Kush around 1500 BC and conquered all of Nubia north of the Fifth Cataract. He destroyed the Kushite palace.Kush remained an Egyptian territory for about 450 years. Egypt’s influence over Kush grew tremendously.When the New Kingdom in Egypt ended in the mid-1000s BC, Kush once again became independent.
15 Main Idea 3: After winning its independence, Kush ruled Egypt and set up a new dynasty there.
16 Conquest of Egypt By about 850 BC Kush had regained its strength. Kings of Kush ruled from the city of Napata.In 751 BC a Kushite king named Kashta attacked and conquered Upper Egypt.After Kashta died, his son Piankhi ruled.By 716 Kush controlled all of Egypt.
17 Kushite DynastyAfter the death of Piankhi his brother named Shabaka declared himself pharaoh, beginning the Kushite Dynasty.Worked to restore old Egyptian cultural practices, such as pyramid-buildingPreserved old Egyptian writingsEgyptian culture flourished.
19 End of Kushite Rule in Egypt Kushites remained strong in Egypt for about 40 years.In the 670s and 660s BC Assyrians from Mesopotamia invaded and pushed the Kushites from Egypt.The Assyrians iron weapons gave them a military advantage over the Kushite’s weaker weapons.