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Key Terms Print using six slides to a page. Cut out definitions and apply to 3x5 card. Write the identification on the other side.

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Presentation on theme: "Key Terms Print using six slides to a page. Cut out definitions and apply to 3x5 card. Write the identification on the other side."— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Terms Print using six slides to a page. Cut out definitions and apply to 3x5 card. Write the identification on the other side.

2 Abbasid Caliphate Cosmopolitan Arabic dynasty (750-1258) that replaced the Umayyads; founded by Abu al- Abbas and reached its peak under Harun al- Rashid

3 Al-Andalus Islamic Spain

4 Ali C. 599-661…cousin and son in law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus of Shi’a

5 Almohadis A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Saharan Africa

6 Anatolia Modern day Turkey

7 Angkor Dynasty Southeast Asian Khmer kingdom (889- 1432)that was centered on the temple cities of Angkor Thom and Angkor Wat

8 Ashikaga Shogunate Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority

9 Astrolabe Navigational instrument for determining latitude

10 Aztec Empire Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the fifteenth century during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Motecuzoma I

11 Baghdad Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon

12 Abu Bakr First caliph after the death of Muhammad

13 Bakufu Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samurai

14 Bedouin Nomadic pastoralist of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam

15 Black Death (Bubonic Plague) Plague that struck Europe in 14 th century; significantly reduced Europe’s population; affected social structure

16 Borobudur Largest Buddhist monument in the world; located on Java

17 Boyars Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe

18 Bushi Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies

19 Byzantine Empire Long lasting empire centered at Constantinople; it grew out of the end of the Roman Empire, carried the legacy of Roman greatness, and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age; it reached its peak during the reign of Justinian (483-565)

20 Caesaropapism Concept related to the mixing of political and religious authority, as with the Roman emperors, that was central to the church versus state controversy in medieval Europe

21 Caliph “Deputy”…Islamic leader after the death of Muhammad

22 Carolingian Dynasty Germanic dynasty named for its most famous member, Charlemagne; royal house of Franks after 8 th century until their replacement in 10 th century

23 Chang’an Capital of Tang Dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time

24 Charlemagne Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c. 800

25 Chinampas Agricultural gardens used by the Mexica (Aztec) in which fertile muck from lake bottoms was dredged and built up into small plots

26 Chinnggis Khan (Genghis Khan) Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan, elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world

27 Clovis Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom

28 Crusades Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy

29 Cryllic alphabet Written script for Slavic language created by Cyril (827-869) and Methodius (826-885), missionaries sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity

30 Daimyos Powerful territorial lords in early modern Japan

31 Delhi Sultanate 1206-1526….Islamic state led by former Mamluk slaves originally from Afghanistan, who governed north India from their capital at Delhi. At their peak, in the early 1300s, they controlled nearly all of the Indian subcontinent

32 Dhimmi Islam concept of a protected people, “people of the book,” applied to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories and later to Zoroastrians and Hindus that was symbolic of Islamic toleration during the Mughal and Ottoman empires

33 Dhow Indian, Persian and Arab ships with triangular or lateen sail, one hundred to four hundred tons, that sailed and traded throughout the Indian Ocean basin.

34 Feudalism The legal and social system in Europe from 1000 to 1400 in which serfs worked the land and subordinates performed military service for their lord in return for his protection.

35 Five Pillars of Faith The foundation of Islam; obligatory religious duties: (1) profession of faith; (2) prayer; (3) fasting during Ramadan; (4) alms giving; (5) pilgrimage, or hajj.

36 Flying Money Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency

37 Footbinding Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household

38 Fujiwara Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9 th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power

39 Vasco da Gama Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese domination of Indian Ocean

40 Ghana Kingdom in west Africa during the fifth through thirteenth century whose rulers eventually converted to Islam; its power and wealth was based on dominating trans Saharan trade

41 Golden Horde One of the four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan’s death; originally ruled by his grandson Batu; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia

42 Gothic An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls

43 Grand Canal Built in 7 th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south, nearly 1200 miles long

44 Great Zimbabwe Bantu confederation of Shona speaking peoples located between Zanbezi and Limpopo rivers; developed after 8 th century; featured royal courts built of stone; created centralized state by 15 th century; king took title of Mwene Mutapa

45 Greek fire Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attached Constantinople

46 Gregory VII Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free church from interference of the feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture

47 Griot Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings with the Mali Empire

48 Guilds Sworn association of people in the same business or craft in a single city; stressed security and mutual control, limited membership; regulated apprenticeship; guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities

49 Hagia Sophia Massive Christian church constructed by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later converted to a mosque

50 Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca…one of the Five Pillars of Faith

51 Henry the Navigator Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15 th century; marked beginning of western European expansion

52 Hijra Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina in 622, which is considered the beginning point of the Islamic calendar and is considered to mark the beginning of the Islamic faith

53 Holy Roman Empire Located in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne’s empire; failed to develop centralized monarchy

54 Huitzilopochtli Sun god and patron deity of the Aztecs

55 Hundred Years’ War Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states

56 Ibn Battuta Born c. 1304…Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records

57 Iconoclasm Movement begun by the Byzantine emperor Leo III (ruled 717-741) to destroy religious icons because their veneration was considered sinful

58 Inca Empire Powerful South American empire that would reach its peak in the fifteenth century during the reigns of Pachacuti Inca and Topa Inca

59 Indian Ocean Trade Network Connection of ports around the Indian Ocean in East Africa, Arabia, and western India. Dhows traveled from port to port along the coast carrying goods

60 Inquisition Special court established by the pope to hear charges against those accused of heresy. Used anonymous informants; forced interrogations; torture to identify heretics. Those found guilty were usually burned at the stake.

61 Investiture Controversy One aspect of the medieval European church vs state conflict, who should be granting church offices: a lay leader (ruler) or a church leader (Pope)

62 Iroquois Confederacy Eastern American Indian confederation or grouping made up of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca tribes

63 Janissaries Turkish word meaning “new soldier”; soldiers of the Ottomans, recruited from conquered Christians; Ottomans required them to be celibate so that they would not have descendants.

64 Jihad Struggle; often used for wars in defense of the faith

65 Jizya Tax in Islamic empires that was imposed on non-Muslims

66 Junks Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders, dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula

67 Jurchens From Manchuria; defeated by the Mongols

68 Ka’ba Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam

69 Kamakura Shogunate 1185-1333…Japan under control of Minamoto clan with government controlled by shogun ruling in name of emperor

70 Khanates Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chingghis Khan

71 Khitans Nomadic peoples of Manchuria militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11 th century

72 Khmers Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south

73 Khubilai Khan 1215-1294… grandson of Chingghis Khan commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became Khagan (khan) in 1260; established sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271

74 Kievan Russia Predecessor to modern Russia; medieval state which existed from the end of the 9 th to the middle of the 13 th century; territory spanned parts of modern Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia

75 Lateen sail Triangular sails attached to the masts of dhows by long booms or yard arms which extended diagonally high across the fore and aft of the ship

76 Magna Carta Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; represented principles of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy

77 Mahmud of Ghazni 971-1030….third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression

78 Malacca Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands

79 Mali West African kingdom founded in the thirteenth century by Sundiata; it reached its peak during the reign of Mansa Musa

80 Mamluk Empire Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance

81 Manorialism System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exhanged labor or rents for access to land

82 Mansa Musa Ruled 1307-1332….successor to Sundiata who made a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca accompanied by 500 servants each carrying a staff of gold weighing 6 pounds and 100 camels carrying about 700 pounds of gold. His gifts and expenditures of gold seriously impacted the economy of northern Africa

83 Mecca City located in mountainous region along the Red Sea in Arabian peninsula; founded by Umayyad clan of Bedouins; site of Ka’ba; original home of Muhammad; location of chief religious pilgrimage point in Islam

84 Middle Ages The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15 th century

85 Minamoto Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12 th century Japan

86 Ming Dynasty Succeeded Yuan dynasty (1368-1644) founded by Hongwu and known for its cultural brilliance; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asian and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China

87 Mita Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control

88 Mongols Central Asian nomadic people smashed Turko- Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph

89 Monsoons Seasonal winds in South Asia blowing northeast in spring and early summer and southwest in fall and winter, bringing heavy seasonal rains

90 Movable type First developed in China after 1040. Printers made individual characters from clay, fired them in a kiln, set them in an iron frame, and printed pages by pressing paper against the inked type

91 Mughal Empire Islamic dynasty that ruled India from the sixteenth through the eighteenth century, the construction of the Taj Mahal is representative of their splendor; with the exception of the enlightened reign of Akbar, the increasing conflict between Hindus and Muslims was another of their legacies

92 Muhammad Prophet of Islam (570-632) born c. 570 to clan of Bedouin tribe in Mecca; raised by father’s family; received revelations from Allah in 610 and thereafter; died in 632

93 Neo-Confucianism Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucianism and Buddhist thought; revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on dynasties that followed; emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences

94 Ottoman Empire Powerful Turkish empire that lasted from the fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 until 1918 and reached its peak under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520-1566)

95 Parliament Body representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France

96 Patriarch Leader of the Greek Orthodox church, which in 1054 officially split with the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church

97 Pochteca Special merchant class in Aztec society specialized in long distance trade of luxury items

98 Pope Leader of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome

99 Prestor John In legends popular from 12 th to 17 th centuries, a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by Muslim conquests;

100 Quetzalcoatl Aztec god, the feathered serpent, who was borrowed originally from the Toltecs; believed to have been defeated by another god and who promised to return

101 Quipu Incan mnemonic aid comprised of different colored strings and knots that served to record events in the absence of a written text

102 Ramadan Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset

103 Renaissance Cultural and political movement in western Europe; began in Italy c. 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; features a literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages

104 Sahel “shore”, the boundary between the Sahara Desert and the rest of Africa

105 Saladin Muslim leader in the last decade of the 12 th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam

106 Samurai Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor

107 Scholasticism Medieval attempt of thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas to merge the beliefs of Christianity with the logical rigor of the Greek philosophers

108 Seljuk Turks Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in the name of the Abbasid caliphs from mid-11 th century

109 Serfs Peasants who, though not chattel slaves, were tied to the land who owed obligations to the lords whose land they worked

110 Sharia The Islamic holy law, drawn up by theologians from the Quran and accounts of Muhammad’s life

111 Shi’a (Shi’ite) Islamic minority in opposition to the Sunni majority; their belief is that leadership should reside in the line descended from Muhammad Ali

112 Shoguns Japanese military leader who ruled in place of the emperor

113 Sikhism An Indian syncretic religion that blends elements of Hinduism and Islam

114 Simony The sale of church office in Europe. Since church office was considered sacred, its sale was a sin.

115 Song Dynasty Chinese dynasty (960-1279) that was marked by an increasingly urbanized and cosmopolitan society

116 Songhay (Songhai) Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali (1464-1492)

117 Srivijaya Southeast Asian kingdom (670-1025), based on the island of Sumatra, that used a powerful navy to dominate trade

118 Stateless societies Term relating to societies such as those of sub- Saharan Africa after the Bantu migrations that featured decentralized rule through family and kinship groups instead of strongly centralized hierarchies

119 Sufi Islamic mystics who placed more emphasis on emotion and devotion than on strict adherence to rules

120 Sultan Ruler in Arabic. Any head of an Islamic state. States they ruled are called sultanates.

121 Sundiata Founder of the Mali empire, the “Lion Prince” (ruled 1230-1255), also the inspiration for the Sundiata, an African literary and mythological work

122 Sunni Traditionalists, the most popular branch of Islam; Sunnis believe in the legitimacy of the early caliphs, compared with the Shi’ite belief that only a descendent of Muhammad can live

123 Swahili East African city-state society that dominated the coast from Mogadishu to Kilwa and was active in trade

124 Taika Reforms Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army

125 Tale of the Genji Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society

126 Tang Dynasty 618-907…political and cultural high point in Chinese history. Tang emperors combined elements of the Qin/Han empire with new measures to create a government that spread to Tibet, Korea, and Japan

127 Tenochtitlan Capital of the Aztec empire, later Mexico City; Founded c. 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of the central plateau of Mesoamerica

128 Three Estates The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, everyone else

129 Three-field system System of agricultural cultivation by 9 th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one third fallow, and one third in fall crops

130 Timbuktu Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River; population of 50000; contained a library and university

131 Timur the Lame Aka Tamerlane, (c. 1336-1405), who conquered an empire ranging from the Black Sea to Samarkand

132 Toltec culture Central American society (950-1150) centered on the city of Tula that succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000; declined after 1200

133 Trung sisters Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society

134 Umayyad Caliphate Arabic dynasty (661-750) with its capital at Damascus, that was marked by a tremendous period of expansion to Spain in the west and India in the east

135 Umma Islamic term for the “community of the faithful”; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity

136 Pope Urban II Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free Holy Land from the Muslims

137 Vassals Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a feudal lord in return for military service and loyalty

138 Vikings Seagoing Scandinavian raiders from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway who disrupted coastal areas of western Europe from the 8 th to the 11 th centuries

139 William the Conqueror Invaded England from Normany in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy

140 White Lotus Society Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule

141 Yuan Dynasty Chinese dynasty (1279-1368) that was founded by the Mongol ruler, Khubilai Khan

142 Zheng He Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433

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