Presentation on theme: "Islam and the West How do you think these early interactions between the West and Islamic nations have contributed to modern day relations between the."— Presentation transcript:
Islam and the West How do you think these early interactions between the West and Islamic nations have contributed to modern day relations between the West and Islamic nations?
British Imperialism What did Britain get out taking over India?
Intro China had a favorable balance of trade: Trade Surplus: Export more than it imports That changed in the 1800s
Trade Between China and Britain China had the best stuff so it didn’t want to take in goods from other counties. Exchanged silk, porcelain, and tea for gold and silver. How did the Industrial Revolution influence this? Western nations needed new markets goods. Western nations had superior military power.
Opium Wars One of the natural resources Britain got from India was opium. Traded opium for tea. Chinese got addicted and began to buy more and their economy began to shift. Chinese gov. outlaws opium, kills drug dealers and commands Britain to stop. Britain refuse=their opportunity to open trade to China In 1839 Chinese warships went to stop British merchants. Superior technology of British warships easily defeated the Chinese. Opium continued to flow.
Unequal Treaties 1842 Britain forces China to accept the Treaty of Nanjing=End of opium wars. Britain receives: Huge indemnity (payment for war losses) and Hong Kong. China had to open 5 ports for trade. Extraterritoriality= British could live in China but under their rules and only be tried by their courts. Other wars ended with more unequal treaties being forced onto China. The West finally had access to China.
Question How did British trade with China trigger the opium wars?
The Taiping Rebellion Weakens China 19 th century Qing dynasty in decline causing many issues: Irrigation systems poorly maintained= flooding Huang valley. Population explosion too big for systems: food, housing etc., peasants suffer. Gov. corruption, extravagant court, rich evading taxes. What does this remind you of?
The Taiping Rebellion Weakens China Poor and miserable conditions lead to a peasant rebellion. Taiping Rebellion lasts form 1850-1864: the most devastating peasant rebellion in history. Leader: Hong Xiuquan called for the end of the Qing dynasty. Took and held large parts of China. Governors and generals loyal to the Qing eventually ended it. Estimated 20-30 million Chinese die. The Qing are forced to share power with regional commanders. The European powers and Russia keep pressure on the fragmented gov. of China
Question How did the Taiping Rebellion and other internal problems weaken the Qing dynasty?
Launching Reform Efforts Mid-1800s China was divided over if they should adopt Western ways. Most saw no need for them, wealth from land. Merchants not seen as a source of prosperity. Western religion conflicted with Confucian order. Individual vs. the greater good. Late 1800s Ci Xi in power, committed to Confucian tradition
Confucianism In Confucianism, social harmony is the ultimate goal of every follower. This means that everyone must know their place in the social order. Relationships among different groups of people, is key in Confucianism. The five cardinal relations include: Ruler and subject Father and son Husband and wife Elder and younger brother Friend to friend. These bonds are categorized in ways that show respect and obedience from one group to the next. It is greatly emphasized that family is the center of everything and comes before the individual person.
Confucianism There are five virtues taught in Confucianism. The first virtue is Ren, which is humaneness; Humaneness can be defined as the quality of compassion for others, which can include both people and animals. Three of the key concepts of Ren are love, mercy, and humanity. The second virtue is Yi. Yi means honesty and righteousness. The third virtue is Li, which means propriety and correct behavior. The fourth virtue is Zhi, which stands for wisdom or knowledge. The fifth virtue is Xin, which stands for fidelity and sincerity.
Self-Strengthening Movement 1860s=move to import, learn about, and develop Western technology. Limited progress cause of a lack of gov. support.
War with Japan Japan modernized quickly with the West. Japan=imperialists like the West, desired a global empire. 1894 the Sino-Japanese War, Japan vs. China China loses, Japan gains Taiwan.
Carving Spheres of Influence The loss to Japan showed China’s weakness. Western powers pounce. European powers began to carve up China. U.S. worried it would get shut out proposes the Open Door Policy. China not included in talks.
Hundred Days Reform Chinese reformers sought to change and modernize China, emperor Guang Xu. Launch 100 day reform designed to kick start modernization. Conservatives rejected this and imprisoned him.
The Qing Dynasty Falls Foreigners invaded and trampled China. Anti-foreign feeling finally exploded: Boxer Uprising. 1899, The Righteous Harmonious Fists, goal to drive out “foreign devils.” In 1900 they attacked across China. The West and Japan crushed this rebellion. With another loss Chinese conservatives finally saw the need to modernize and did.
The Principles of the People Boxers failed but sparked nationalism. 1900s Moved to a constitutional monarchy, but people wanted a republic. Sun Yixian organized the Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China. Three Principles of the People Nationalism Democracy Livelihood Sun Yixian named president of the new republic, 1911
Questions Why was China so resistant to change and what finally made it decide to change? Why do you think people are so often resistant to change?