Do Now: Look at the chart on page 653 (figure 25.1) What do you notice about the prevalence and incidence of most STI’s? What do you notice about the prevalence and incidence of most STI’s? What are the reasons for this? What are the reasons for this?
Some Facts…. STI’s account for more than 85 percent of the most common communicable diseases in the US More than half of all people will have an STI at some point in their lifetime Each year, one in four teens contracts an STI One in two sexually active persons will contact an STI by age 25
Some Facts… Of the STI’s that are diagnosed, only some (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, hepatitis A and B) are required to be reported to state health departments and the CDC.
Who Gets Them? ¤ IV drug users ¤ Having multiple sex partners ¤ Engaging in close personal contact with infected person(s) ¤ ANYONE
Herpes 1 & 2 Oral : herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Usually causes cold sores Usually causes cold sores Genital: herpes simplex virus Type 2 (HSV-2) herpes simplex virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Usually causes genital sores Usually causes genital sores Herpes can be passed from mother to child during deliveryHerpes can be passed from mother to child during delivery Estimated 1 million new cases each yearEstimated 1 million new cases each year Approximately 45 million people currently infectedApproximately 45 million people currently infected Both types can infect the mouth and the genitalsBoth types can infect the mouth and the genitals
Symptoms of Oral Herpes Cold Sores on Lips or inside of mouth
Genital Herpes It is estimated that as many as one in five Americans have genital herpes, a lifelong (but manageable) infection, yet up to 90 percent of those with herpes are unaware they have it.
Symptoms of Genital Herpes Clusters of blistery sores usually on the Vagina Vagina Vulva Vulva Cervix Cervix Penis Penis Anus Anus ** Symptoms may last several weeks, go away, and then return -- weeks, months, or even years later
More symptoms: Pain in the effected area Itching Burning feeling if urine flows over sores Inability to urinate if severely swollen from many sores
How is Herpes spread? ¤ Moist areas of the: ¤ mouth ¤ anus ¤ vulva ¤ vagina ¤ penis ¤ eyes ¤ Skin can be infected if it is cut, chafed or burned
Preventing the spread of Herpes Don’t touch the sores Don’t touch the sores Wash your hands after going to the bathroom Wash your hands after going to the bathroom Wash your hands before rubbing your eyes Wash your hands before rubbing your eyes when you wake up when you wake up Don’t wet contact lenses with saliva Don’t wet contact lenses with saliva
Wash your hands before touching a contact lens Wash your hands before touching a contact lens If you have a cold sore - DON’T KISS ANYONE If you have a cold sore - DON’T KISS ANYONE If a genital sore is present - NO SEXUAL INTERCOURSE - even with a condom If a genital sore is present - NO SEXUAL INTERCOURSE - even with a condom Preventing the spread of Herpes cont.
Something to think about… Most people who have genital herpes are asymptomatic The virus can spread in the absence of symptoms Medication can relieve the symptoms, but cannot cure herpes infection The virus is potentially fatal for infants who contract it from their mother at birth
Chlamydia Currently the #1 sexually transmitted disease in the United States
Chlamydia Bacterial infection that affects the reproductive organs of both males and females 40% of cases are reported in teens 15 to 19 years old Asymptomatic in 75% of infected females and 50% of infected males Often goes undetected until serious complications occur
Symptoms Chlamydia is known as a "silent" disease because of the lack of symptoms If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.
Chlamydia: Symptoms Women: abnormal vaginal discharge abnormal vaginal discharge burning sensation when urinating burning sensation when urinating Men: discharge from penis discharge from penis burning sensation when urinating burning sensation when urinating Burning/itching around the opening of the penis. Burning/itching around the opening of the penis.
Chlamydia In 2006, 1,030,911 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and do not seek testing
Chlamydia: Dangers Ô Infection of the cervix Ô Can result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Chronic Long-term Pelvic pain Ô Infertility in males and females
How is it Spread? Through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse Infants born to infected females can develop eye disease or pneumonia Can also cause premature birth Can also cause premature birth
Treatment Antibiotics: Tetracycline Tetracycline Penicillin Penicillin Erythromycin Erythromycin Can be treated, but no immunity develops – a person can become infected again!
Gonorrhea A gonococcal bacterial infection The highest rates of gonorrhea infection are found in females from 15 to 19 years old and in males from 20 to 24 years old
Gonorrhea: Symptoms Burning during urination Burning during urination Yellow “morning drip” from penis Yellow “morning drip” from penis Painful, swollen testicles Painful, swollen testicles Vaginal discharge Vaginal discharge Painful intercourse Painful intercourse
Gonorrhea About half of women with gonorrhea have no symptoms Females can pass it to their child at birth
Gonorrhea: Dangers Infection of the cervix Infection of the cervix Urethral infections Urethral infections Rectal infections Rectal infections Infections of the throat Infections of the throat PID or Sterility PID or Sterility
How is it spread ? Through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) A virus that can cause genital warts or asymptomatic infection 50 – 75% of sexually active males and females acquire HPV infection at some time About 30 different types of HPV can infect the genital area
HPV There is no treatment – some are temporary and can be cleared by the immune system Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV HPV can also cause cancers of the penis and anus
How is it spread? Vaginal, oral or anal sex Genital Warts (Human Papilloma Virus or HPV)
Pubic Lice (crabs) Tiny wingless insects that feed at the base of hair follicles. Normally found in the pubic region.