Presentation on theme: "Follow these directions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Follow these directions: They are:Simple SentenceCompound SentenceComplex SentenceCompound-Complex sentenceLet's take them one at a time.Follow these directions:Get your literary notebook and set up a Type 1.Write down your homework in your assignment book.
2 Type 2:Which sentence includes a dependent clause and which includes a prepositional phrase? Explain how you know.Before dinner, we wash our hands.Before we eat dinner, we wash our hands.
3 Type 2:Some subordinating conjunctions (especially those expressing time) can also act as prepositions.As prepositions, they introduce a prepositional phrase without a subject and verb:Before dinner, we wash our hands.(prepositional phrase with no subject and verb)As conjunctions, they introduce a dependent clause containing a subject and verb:Before we eat dinner, we wash our hands.(dependent clause with subject we and verb eat)
4 Type 1:Some words can be used as either prepositions or as subordinating conjunctions:Example:After the election, we celebrated.After we won the election, we celebrated.Which is which? How do you know?
5 NOTE:Some words can be used as either prepositions or as subordinating conjunctions:After the election, we celebrated.Prepositions begin prepositional phrases which do not contain a subject and/or a predicate.After we won the election, we celebrated.Subordinating conjunctions begin dependent clauses which contain a subject and a predicate.
6 Today’s Grammar Lesson: First, the bad news. . .There are billions of sentences out there that we might have to understand.Next, the good news. . .All sentences fall into just four structures:Simple SentenceCompound SentenceComplex SentenceCompound-Complex SentenceBecause you know clauses, you can form all four sentence structures.
7 Simple Sentence A sentence with one independent clause. Note what the definition does not say. It doesn't say that a simple sentence is short or easy to understand. It doesn't say anything about phrases. A simple sentence can have forty-seven phrases, but only one independent clause.
8 Simple Sentence Let's look at an example: Look at this: I love simple sentences.That's easy enough. It is obviously one independent clause.Look at this:I love to read simple sentences upon getting up and before going to bed.Amazingly, it's still a simple sentence. I am piling on phrases, but the sentence still contains only one independent clause.
9 A Compound Sentence…contains two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS).Example:I love conjunctive adverbs, but my students love video games.The independent clauses are in green. This sentence contains no dependent clauses.Don’t forget the comma!
10 Sometimes a compound sentence… contains two independent clauses joined with a semicolon.Example: I love conjunctive adverbs; my students love video games.uses a conjunctive adverb to link two independent clauses:Example: I can name several conjunctive adverbs; consequently, my friends are impressed.
11 Conjunctive Adverbs also indeed otherwise anyway instead still besides likewisethenconsequentlymeanwhilethereforefinallymoreoverthusfurthermoreneverthelesshowevernextincidentallynonetheless
12 Proper Punctuation:How do you punctuate a compound sentence that uses a conjunctive adverb?We should leave early otherwise we will miss the start of the movie.CORRECT: We should leave early; otherwise, we will miss the start of the movie.
13 A Complex Sentence…contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clause.Example: Because life is complex, we need complex sentences.The independent clause is in green.The dependent clause is in italicized pink.Example: Because people know that I am an English teacher, they make allowances for how I dress and what I say.This sentence contains four dependent clauses indicated by pink italics.Two of the dependent clauses are inside of and part of the independent clause. Don't be alarmed. That happens all the time.
14 A Compound – Complex sentence.. Contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.Example:Because I am an English teacher, some people expect me to speak perfectly, and other people expect me to write perfectly.The dependent clause is in italicized pink, and the independent clauses are in green.Some people tell me that my grading is too tough, and others tell me that my assignments are boring.The independent clauses are in green.The dependent clauses are italicized pink.Note that the dependent clauses occur within the independent clauses. It often happens.
15 Label Sentence Structure: S = simple CD = compound CX = complex CC = compound-complexAmericans eat more bananas than they eat any other fruit.Jimmy Kimmel and Jimmy Fallon host late-night talk shows.Even though the sun is a star, it knows how to change back to the sun in the daytime.I planned to drive to work, but I couldn't until the mechanic repaired my car.My twelve-month-old son toasts and butters his bagel.Mushrooms grow in damp places, so they look like tiny umbrellas.Many dead animals of the past changed to oil while others preferred to be gas.Parallel lines never meet until you bend one of them.The largest mammals are found in the sea; there's nowhere else to put them.When the heat comes, the lakes dry up, and farmers know the crops will fail.
16 Label Sentence Structure: CX Americans eat more bananas than they eat any other fruit.S Jimmy Kimmel and Jimmy Fallon host late-night talk shows.CX Even though the sun is a star, it knows how to change back to the sun in the daytime.CC I planned to drive to work, but I couldn't until the mechanic repaired my car.S My twelve-month-old son toasts and butters his bagel.CD Mushrooms grow in damp places, so they look like tiny umbrellas.CX Many dead animals of the past changed to oil while others preferred to be gas.CX Parallel lines never meet until you bend one of them.CD The largest mammals are found in the sea; there's nowhere else to put them.CC When the heat comes, the lakes dry up, and farmers know the crops will fail.