Presentation on theme: "DIT - CSER 8th April 2011 “The Power of Pre-school: Lessons from research on the long term impact of quality pre-school provision” Effective Pre-School,"— Presentation transcript:
1 DIT - CSER 8th April “The Power of Pre-school: Lessons from research on the long term impact of quality pre-school provision” Effective Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Project (EPPSE 3-16) A Longitudinal Study Funded by the UK Department for EducationProfessor Iram Siraj-BlatchfordInstitute of Education, University of London
2 This presentation Intro to the EPPE/EPPSE study Evidence from EPPE/REPEY, EPPNI and MEEIFPExploring qualityThe short, medium and long term impact of pre-school
3 The EPPE/EPPSE DesignThe overall research design of EPPSE 3-14 Project as an example of ‘educational effectiveness’ research using valued added methods.EPPSE combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods.
4 Aims of research on educational effectiveness To compare the progress of children from a wide range of social and cultural backgrounds who have differing pre-school experiences.To separate out the effects of pre-school experience from the effects of primary school.To establish whether some pre-school centres are more effective than others in promoting children’s development.To discover the characteristics of pre-school education in those centres found to be most effective.To investigate the differences in the progress of groups of children, e.g. children from disadvantaged backgrounds.
5 Design of EPPSE : 6 Local Authorities, 141 pre-schools, 3,000 children Pre-school Provision (3+ yrs)25 nursery classes590 childrenKS 1862schKS21,128schKS3739schKS4700+sch34 playgroups610 children31 private day nurseries520 children20 nursery schools520 children24 local authority day care nurseries430 children7 integrated centres190 childrenhome310 children
6 Sources of data, so farChild assessment (social/behaviour & cognitive) at 3, 4+, 6, 7, 10 ,11 & 14 years (first 16 outcomes in 2009)Family background at 3, 6 and 11 & 14Interviews/questionnaires with staff‘Quality’ rating scales in pre-schoolCase studies of effective pre-school settingsPedagogical observations in primary schoolSchool and classroom climate questionnairesChildren’s views of school at age 7, 10 & 14Teachers’ views on school processes and practice in Yr 5 & Yr 9
7 Different influences on child outcomes Home-Learning- Environment Child FactorsCognitive outcomes:English & mathsSocial/Behavioural:Self RegulationLikes to work things out for selfPro-socialConsiderate of others feelingsHyperactivityRestless, cannot stay still for longAnti-socialHas been in trouble with the lawFamily FactorsHome-Learning- EnvironmentPrimary SchoolPre-School
8 Key Issues – nationally and internationally! Drawing on evidence from projects: EPPE/REPEY 3-7 (England) EPPNI 3-5 (Northern Ireland) MEEIFP 3-6 (Wales)Key Issues – nationally and internationally!Quality of provision formal v informal (care and education)Transitions – especially Summer born childrenRatiosTrainingLiteracy and interactionsAppropriate curriculum and assessments
9 Early Years and outcomes If children come from disadvantaged backgrounds and are ‘at risk’ of social problems, then high quality pre-school/early years will make an important contribution to improving their social development.Children with no pre-school experience (the ‘home’ group) had poorer intellectual attainment, sociability and concentration when they started school, even after taking account of home background.More terms in pre-school (after the age of 2 years) is related to better cognitive and social progress (dose effect).Children who attend pre-school settings part-time develop as well as those children attending full-time
10 EffectivenessIntegrated settings and nursery schools tend to do better on cognitive outcomes even after taking account of children’s backgrounds.Integrated settings (which have fully integrated education with care) nursery schools and nursery classes are better at fostering children’s social developmentSettings with higher quality provision decreased children’s anti-social/ worried behaviour..
11 QualitySettings in the state educational sector have children who make (comparatively) more progress than those in the private/voluntary sector.In the EPPE sample, nursery schools and centres that integrated education and care tended to be rated highest on quality, (e.g. ECERS and Caregiver Interaction Scale).Good quality and better cognitive outcomes for children are associated with higher quality as defined by the ECERS R and EIn the most effective settings, staff hadbetter knowledge of the curriculum and child developmentengaged more in ‘sustained shared thinking’ with childrenSupported children in talking through and resolving conflictAdults had warm, responsive relationships with children.Set clear educational goals.Have recognised early years qualifications.Trained teachers are amongst the staff.Parents are supported in involvement in children’s learning.
12 Complex value-added model: the effect of pre-school’s quality on children’s cognitive progress Pre-readingEarly number conceptsLanguageNon-verbal reasoningSpatial awarenessECERS-EAverage totalpositive*positiveLiteracyMathsScience/Environmentpositive#DiversityECERS-RSpace and furnishingsPersonal careLanguage and reasoningActivitiesInteractionProgramme structureParents and staff* When change of centre is not in model # verging on statistical significance
13 Complex value-added model: the effect of pre-school’s quality on children’s social-behavioural developmentIndependence and concentrationCooperation and ConformityPeer SociabilityAnti-social/ WorriedECERS-EAverage totalpositive#LiteracyMathsScience/ environmentDiversity
14 Home learning before 3 years What parents and carers do is most important and makes a real difference to development. Activities for parents which help children’s development include:reading to children;teaching children songs and nursery rhymes;playing with letters and numbers;painting and drawing;taking children to libraries;(for social outcomes) creating regular opportunities for play with friends.
15 Training: Relationship between Quality and Manager Qualification: EPPE evidence Link qualification to quality – this has been disputed by some studies (LIST STUDIES) – therefore this is a significant finding as it seems to suggest that there is more to the story…or perhaps, since the listed studies are from primary schools, qualifications are particularly/especially important in early years as knowledge of children’s development levels and understanding of developmentally appropriate instruction/activity is essential for the facilitation of children’s cognitive, social-behavioural and dispositional development.
17 Best Practice in the Foundation Phase (achieved by 10% of the pilots, all maintained) The best settings in terms of implementing the FP appear to have the following common characteristics:More detailed, focused planning.Lead practitioners with good leadership and management skills and the ability to allocate effective roles for other adults whilst planning together for children’s learningGuided and supported play activities with higher levels of adult-child interaction that support children’s thinking.Clear and dynamic vision and leadership from setting heads who have a good grasp of effective early years practice and are able to communicate this effectively to FP staff.4th December, 2006
18 Best Practice in the Foundation Phase The best settings did not slavishly adhere to the FP guidance but took it seriously and built the FP into existing good practice.A move away from over-formal practice in the basics towards a more experiential, child centred and adult guided, play based practice.The leadership of the setting has a culture of investing in staff development.Some well trained and qualified staff who have a good understanding of child development and pedagogy and who actively support other staff in working with children.4th December, 2006
19 Effective Pedagogy Sustained shared thinking: Open-ended questions An episode in which two or more individuals “work together” in an intellectual way to solve a problem, clarify a concept, evaluate activities, extend a narrative etc. Both parties must contribute to the thinking and it must develop and extend.Open-ended questionsPlayful learning
20 Percentage of high cognitive challenge activities within each initiation category in each setting typepercentage
21 Proportion of adult cognitive pedagogical interactions in settings varying in effectiveness
22 Time spent by children in different social groupings across settings of varying effectiveness
23 Thomas, N. (Eds.) An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies, From: Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2009) ‘Early Childhood Education’ in Maynard, T. andThomas, N. (Eds.) An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies,(2nd Edition) London: Sage Publications (in press)Table 1: OECD Curriculum OutlinesTeacher’sinitiating activitiesTeacher’s extending activitiesDifferentiation and Formative AssessmentRelationships and conflict between childrenSustained Shared ThinkingEEL“Introducing new activities”“Enriching interventions”“Observe children”“Work out sustaining relations”“Engagement”High Scope“Sharing Control”“Participation as partners”“Plan -Do -Review”“Adopt a problem solving approach”“Authentic dialogue”Reggio Emilia“Development of short and long-term projects”“Sustaining the cognitive and social dynamics”“Teachers first listen don’t talk”“Warm reciprocal relationships”“Reciprocity of interactions”EPPE/REPEYCorrelations found with effective practice
24 Reducing InequalityInvesting in good quality EYFS provision is an effective means of achieving targets concerning social exclusion and breaking cycles of disadvantage, but more is only better if the quality is right.
25 Playful learning for children is based on the following ideas: Building on and extending the child’s interestsThe child is usually active physically, socially and intellectuallyThe learning is exploratory without necessarily fixed outcomes in mindPlayful learning motivates children to try more challenging learningChildren use, apply and extend their knowledge, skills and understanding through active explorationIn social contexts children develop their capacities for cooperation and collaboration and can often explore complex ideas
26 The role of adults in supporting playful learning includes: Supporting playful learning involves the use of a suite of strategies including:Creating well resourced environments with rich materialsBeing involved and interacting with children as they play and exploreMaintaining a purposeful focus on the child’s learning and developmentModelling expressive language and consciously extending children’s vocabularyConstructively engaging with children to scaffold and extend learningUsing sustained shared thinking strategies to build on child-initiated activity to extend knowledge, skills and understanding
27 The short , medium and long term impact of pre-school
28 Short Term impact- Aged 5 (entry to school) Reading
29 Short term impact – Aged 5 (entry to school) Social-behavioural
30 Main findings from the ECERS- R & E Scores on the total ECERS-R were positively related to children’s progress in Cooperation/conformityScores on the ‘social interaction’ sub-scale were related to the development of independence and peer sociabilityTotal scores on the ECERS-E weresignificantly related to progress inchildren’s- Pre-reading(Phonological awareness, letter recognition)- Non-verbal reasoning- Number skillsSub-scale scores were related to-- independence and concentration
31 Caregiver Interaction Scale (Arnett) Positive relationships is a subscale made up of 10 items indicating warmth and enthusiasm interaction with children by the caregiver.Punitiveness is a subscale made up of 8 items indicating harsh or over-controlling behaviour in interaction with children by the caregiver.Permissiveness is a subscale made up of 4 items indicating avoidance of discipline and control of children by the caregiver.Detachment is a subscale made up of 4 items indicating lack of involvement in interaction with children by the caregiver.
32 Impact of quality as measured by the Caregivers Interaction Scale on cognitive and social behaviour outcomesPre-readingEarly numberconceptsIndependence & ConcentrationCo-operation & ConformityPeer SociabilityPositive relationships+Punitiveness-PermissiveDetachment
33 Medium Term Impact – Aged 7 (end of KS 1 ) - Reading and Writing READING at key stage 1, social class andpre-school experienceWRITING at key stage 1, social class andpre-school experience
34 The contribution of social class and pre-school to mathematics attainment (age 7) MATHEMATICS at key stage 1, social class andpre-school experience
35 The impact of Pre-school Quality (ECERS-E: Educational aspects) on English and Maths Pre-school quality is associated with Key Stage 2 performance in both English and Mathematics.Also medium or high quality pre-school is associated with significantly enhanced attainment compared to no pre-school or low quality pre-school, and the effects are comparable in size to the effects of gender and FSM.
36 The Combined Impact of Pre-School Quality and Primary School Effectiveness (Value add) - Mathematics Reference Group: No Pre-School and Very low / low Primary School Effectiveness
37 Pre-school Quality and Self Regulation Long Term impact – Aged 10Pre-school Quality and Self RegulationSelf regulation is highest in children who have attended medium or high quality pre-schools
38 The impact of Pre-school Quality (ECER-R: Social/Care aspects) on Hyperactivity and Pro-social BehaviourHyperactivityPro-socialChildren who attend high quality pre-school display higher pro-social behaviour and lower levels of hyperactive behaviourHome children show significantly reduced levels of positive social behaviour relative to children who attended pre-school regardless of quality, however, they also show reduced levels of Hyperactivity
39 The impact of Pre-school Quality (ECERS-R: Social/Care aspects & ECERS-E: Educational aspect) on Self-regulation and Pro-social behaviourChildren who attended medium and high quality pre-schools had higher levels of ‘Self-regulation’ in Year 6 than others.‘Home’ children were rated by teachers as having less ‘‘Pro-social’’ behaviour relative to children who had attended pre-school, although the difference is most marked for those who attended high quality.
40 Professor Iram Siraj-Blatchford “Pre-school quality in practice and policy implications”DIT - CSER 8th April 2011Professor Iram Siraj-BlatchfordInstitute of Education, University of London
41 Problem solving ‘learning to learn’ (L2L) Curriculum and pedagogical objectives, ‘starting with the child’?Communication;Collaboration;Creativity andProblem solving ‘learning to learn’ (L2L)
42 Creativity and Playful learning Vygotsky (2004) distinguished between two types of cognitive activity, those ‘reproductive’, and those involving creativity: ”Creative activity, based on the ability of our brain to combine elements, is called imagination or fantasy in psychology” (p4). In their fantasy play, young children separate objects and actions from their meaning in the real world and give them new meanings. This provides a basis for early representational thinking.
43 In more advanced forms of representational thinking ‘props’ are no longer required, problems may be solved entirely ‘in one’s head’.The development of such sophisticated levels of abstraction are also related to the development of Metacognition – this is the knowledge and awareness children come to develop of their own cognitive processes.Metacognition develops as the child finds it necessary to describe, explain and justify their thinking about different aspects of the world to others.For most children such a ‘theory of mind’ develops at about 4½ years, but it can be earlier or later. Research shows that children’s pretend play becomes reciprocal and complementary at about the same time.
44 To be creative we need two things: When we give children more control of their learning we provide an opportunity for them to be creativeTo be creative we need two things:Knowledge of a broad range of alternative ‘things that can be done (or thought)’.The playful disposition to try out these alternatives in new contexts, whether this be in the ‘minds eye’ or in the material world.
45 Encourage children:to playfully look for alternative ways of doing thingsto see that there is always a choiceto make connections between thingsto make unusual comparisonsto see things from others points of view
46 Learning to Learn“Much of what teachers (sic) do in helping students to learn how to learn consists of strengthening their meta-cognitive capacity, namely the capacity to monitor, evaluate, control and change how they think and learn. This is a critical feature of personalised learning”. (Hargreaves et al, 2005, DEMOS p 18)In the early years this is achieved in… Play
47 Home learning before 3 years What parents and carers do is most important and makes a real difference to development. Activities for parents which help children’s development include:reading to children;teaching children songs and nursery rhymes;playing with letters and numbers;painting and drawing;taking children to libraries;(for social outcomes) creating regular opportunities for play with friends.
48 Do parents interact differently with boys and girls? TotalHLE 33-45HLE 25-32HLE 20-24HLE 14-19HLE 0-13GirlsBoys
49 Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years includes quality interactions: Sustained shared thinking:An episode in which two or more individuals “work together” in an intellectual way to solve a problem, clarify a concept, evaluate activities, extend a narrative etc. Both parties must contribute to the thinking and it must develop and extend.Open-ended questions feature; andPlayful learning, building on the child’s interests.The above are difficult to assess as outcomes but are essential to achieving good outcomes! Necessary but not sufficient, we still require good content.(Siraj-Blatchford et al., REPEY, DfES 2002)
50 From the Early Education Project on SST How can we support children’s sustained shared thinking? They may include the adult:Tuning inShowing genuine interestRespecting children’s own decisions and choices inviting children to elaborateRe-cappingOffering your own experienceClarifying ideasWaiting for a responseNot hurrying children
51 SuggestingRemindingReflectingUsing encouragement to further thinkingOffering an alternative viewpointSpeculatingReciprocatingSurprising!Asking a balance of closed and open-ended questionsModeling and demonstrating thinking
52 The role of the teacher/adult: Encouraging reflection: I think… I agree…I imagine… I disagree…I like… I don’t like…I wonder…
53 Positive questioning/statements: The role of the teacher/adult: Enquiry QuestionsPositive questioning/statements:I don’t know, what do you think?That’s an interesting idea.I like what you have done there…what…Have you seen what X has done…why…I wondered why you had…I’ve never thought about that before…You’ve really made me think…What would happen if we did…
54 Exploration & Investigation The role of the pedagogue: Enquiry QuestionsQuestions can often be started with ‘I wonder…what, if, why, how, when, where…’Exploration & InvestigationInvestigatingFinding outIdentifyingObservingLooking closelyAsking questionsHow could you find out?What do you think is happening?Why do you think this happens?What can you see?What do you think?What would you like to ask?
55 The role of the pedagogue Questions can often be started with ‘I wonder…what, if, why, how, when, where…’Sense of Time Finding out When did it happen?Do you think that it was always like this?
56 The role of the teacher/adult: Enquiry Questions Questions can often be started with ‘I wonder…what, if, why, how, when, where…’KnowingComparingWhy do you think that?Do you think everyone would think the same?
57 Curriculum and pedagogy Teaching and learning will be most effective if they engage and build on children's existing understandings.Key concepts involved in each domain of early years learning,Metacognitive skill development allows children to learn to solve problems more effectively.
58 Professional understandings (1) mastery of information on the pedagogy of teaching early years children, including:Knowledge of teaching and learning and child development and how to integrate them into practice.Information about how to provide rich conceptual experiences that promote growth in specific content areas, as well as particular areas of development, such as language (vocabulary) and cognition (reasoning).
59 Professional understandings (2) Knowledge of effective teaching strategies, including organizing the environment and routines so as to promote activities that build social-emotional relationships in the classroom.Knowledge of subject-matter content appropriate for young children and knowledge of professional standards in specific content areas.
60 Professional understandings (3) Knowledge of assessment procedures (observation/performance records, work sampling, interview methods) that can be used to inform instruction.Knowledge of the variability among children, in terms of teaching methods and strategies that may be required, including teaching children who have EAL, children from various economic and regional contexts, and children with identified disabilities.
61 Professional understandings (4) Ability to work with teams of professionals.Appreciation of the parents' role and knowledge of methods of collaboration with parents and families.Appreciation of the need for appropriate strategies for accountability.National Research Council (US) Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. National Academy Press, Washington (2001) pp1-21.
62 For further Information about EPPSE project visit the www. ioe. ac For further Information about EPPSE project visit the or Tel (0) Brenda Taggart Research Co-ordinator or the DCSF website at:Principal Investigators:Professor Kathy Sylva, University of OxfordProfessor Edward Melhuish, Birkbeck, University of LondonProfessor Pam Sammons, University of NottinghamProfessor Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Institute of Education, University of LondonBrenda Taggart , Institute of Education, University of LondonAnalyses Team at the Institute of Education, University of London:Dr. Stephen Hunt, Dr. Helena Jeličić, Rebecca Smees and Wesley Welcomme