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Chapter 6 Section 2 Rise of Big Business. New Capitalist Spirit  Capitalism– private ownership of most industries  Competition determines price of goods.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Section 2 Rise of Big Business. New Capitalist Spirit  Capitalism– private ownership of most industries  Competition determines price of goods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Section 2 Rise of Big Business

2 New Capitalist Spirit  Capitalism– private ownership of most industries  Competition determines price of goods and wages  By late 1800’s businesspeople looked to gain wealth by taking advantage of technological advances

3 Horatio Alger  Wrote books describing idea of self reliant individiualism  1869 Luck and Pluck series– based on a rags to riches theme

4 Laissez-Faire Capitalism  No government intervention in economy  Literal translation “hands off”  Businesses would let competition determine prices and wages  Free enterprise system– supply and demand, profit margin determine what and how much to produce

5 Critics Respond  Rapid industrialization is harmful and unjust to the working class  Karl Marx– German philosopher Proposes a system that removes inequities of wealth Communism proposes that individual ownership of property not be allowed Property and production are owned by the community and it provides for needs of all “capitalism allowed bourgeoisie to take advantage of proletariat”

6 Social Darwinism  Adapted Charles Darwin’s theory on natural selection and Evolution  Society progresses through natural selection  The “fittest” would and should rise to positions of wealth and power  The “unfit” would fail  Any attempt to assist poor or less capable would slow social progress  Religious leaders echoed support– wealth became a sign of Christian virtue

7  “Natures cure for most social and political diseases is better than man’s” Nicholas Murray Butler

8 Corporations  At close of Civil War businesses are owned by individuals, families or partnerships  Not enough capital to manage new industries  Definition Organizers raise money by selling shares of stock in company Stockholders receive % of profits– called dividends Stockholders had little or no part of daily operations

9 Advantages of corporations  Could raise large sums of money  Stockholders held limited liability– not responsible for corporations debt  Stable organization– not dependent on owner for its existence  Problems– where competition was fierce, prices and profits fluctuate

10 Jay Gould  Worked as grocery clerk  Invested in railroad stock and earned $77 million

11 Trusts  Corporations band together to form trusts  Turn control of business over to board of trustees  Trustees run business as one large company  Limits overproduction by reducing competition  Develops monopolies or complete control over price and quality of product

12 Andrew Carnegie  Born in 1835 in Scotland  Immigrated to United States in 1848 at age of 12  Worked in cotton miles for $1.20/week in 1848  At 17 became private Secretary to railroad superintendent

13 Carnegie Steel  Began investing to raise money which he used to get into steel industry  Began empire in 1860’s  Knew nothing about production but hired experts to run company

14 Vertical Integration  Own the companies that provide materials and services you depend on  Iron and coal mines for ore  Steamships and railroads to transport products  By 1899 Carnegie organizes Carnegie Steel Company  Sold it to J.P. Morgan in 1901 for $500 million

15 Gospel of Wealth  “Rich are morally obligated to benefit their fellow citizens”  Donated $350 million to charities across the country

16 John D. Rockefeller  Ran Standard Oil Company  Started in 1863 at beginning of oil boom  Practiced vertical integration like Carnegie  Set out to control the oil industry “Competition was inefficient”

17 Horizontal Integration  Control of other companies producing oil  Drove others out of business by making deals with suppliers/transportation at cheaper rates than others  Became first trust in U.S. in 1899  By 1880 controlled 90% of all oil production  Like Carnegie– donated vast sums to charity  $530 million total

18 Cornelius Vanderbilt  Prior to Railroad– operated shipping business  By 1869 gained control of New York Central and 2 others that connected New York City  Soon controlled lines between Chicago, Cleveland, New York, and Toledo  Provided more efficient service by combining small railroads  By 1877 controlled 4,500 miles of track  Personal fortune of $100 million

19 George Westinghouse  1869 at age of 23 established Westinghouse Air Brake Company  After public demonstration of effectiveness of air brake his business grew  By 1874 air brake was on 7,000 passenger cars

20 George Pullman  Built Railroad cars to make travel more comfortable  Built company town south of Chicago in 1880  Hoped to encourage educated, healthy, peaceful and virtuous workers  Provided homes, stores, church, library, theatre, medical offices and athletic fields strictly controlled daily life in company town

21 Mass Marketing  Persuade consumers to purchase products  Brand names– name recognition “Standard Oil”– implies standard for industry  Packaging to set products apart  Helped create consumer culture  Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roebuck and Company– develop mail order catalogs

22 Department Store  Variety of products under one store  Buy in bulk and set cheap prices Marshall Field– Chicago R.H. Macy– New York John Wanamaker– Philadelphia  Becomes domain of women  Hired as workers  Enticed to shop

23 Chain Stores  Branch stores in many cities  Woolworths– Frank Woolworth in 1879  By 1900 had 59 stores around country


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