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Chapter 14 A New Industrial Age. In the 1850s, a man named Henry Bessemer developed a new method for making steel. In the 1850s, a man named Henry Bessemer.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 A New Industrial Age. In the 1850s, a man named Henry Bessemer developed a new method for making steel. In the 1850s, a man named Henry Bessemer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 A New Industrial Age

2 In the 1850s, a man named Henry Bessemer developed a new method for making steel. In the 1850s, a man named Henry Bessemer developed a new method for making steel. Iron was used to make steel through the Bessemer process; this process made steel much cheaper and more available. Iron was used to make steel through the Bessemer process; this process made steel much cheaper and more available. RRs and farm equipment became the biggest users of steel. RRs and farm equipment became the biggest users of steel. Steel also led to the building of the Brooklyn Bridge and some of the 1 st skyscrapers. Steel also led to the building of the Brooklyn Bridge and some of the 1 st skyscrapers.

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5 As steel became more affordable, more RR were built and more businesses turned to RR for the movement of their products. As steel became more affordable, more RR were built and more businesses turned to RR for the movement of their products. As a result, RR became a major contributor to the growth of big business. As a result, RR became a major contributor to the growth of big business.

6 A number of inventions helped the US progress as an industrialized nation during the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. A number of inventions helped the US progress as an industrialized nation during the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse discovered a way to make electricity safer and less expensive for everyone. Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse discovered a way to make electricity safer and less expensive for everyone. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph which recorded sound and the motion picture camera which would eventually make movies possible. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph which recorded sound and the motion picture camera which would eventually make movies possible. He is best known, however, for his “invention” of the electric light bulb. He is best known, however, for his “invention” of the electric light bulb. The invention of the light bulb meant that people could work longer and do more after dark in factories, offices, and homes. The invention of the light bulb meant that people could work longer and do more after dark in factories, offices, and homes.

7 Edison’s definition of genius: “one percent inspiration and ninety nine percent perspiration.”

8 Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson created the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson created the telephone. Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter. Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter. All of these new inventions would greatly impact the lives of many Americans. All of these new inventions would greatly impact the lives of many Americans.

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10 A few men got very rich developing the RR industry. A few men got very rich developing the RR industry. Because some of them were known to be “crooked” in their dealings, they collectively came to be called “robber barons.” Because some of them were known to be “crooked” in their dealings, they collectively came to be called “robber barons.”

11 Andrew Carnegie entered the steel business in 1873 after working for the Pennsylvania RR for many years and seeing the Bessemer process in action. Andrew Carnegie entered the steel business in 1873 after working for the Pennsylvania RR for many years and seeing the Bessemer process in action. Carnegie worked his way up to owning the Carnegie Steel Co. Carnegie worked his way up to owning the Carnegie Steel Co.

12 By 1899 the Carnegie Steel Co. was more successful than any other steel factory. By 1899 the Carnegie Steel Co. was more successful than any other steel factory. Carnegie searched for new ways to make products cheaper, used new machinery and techniques, tracked costs, and offered workers stock in the company. Carnegie searched for new ways to make products cheaper, used new machinery and techniques, tracked costs, and offered workers stock in the company. In order to control the steel industry, Carnegie used vertical integration and horizontal integration. In order to control the steel industry, Carnegie used vertical integration and horizontal integration. Vertical-a process where he bought out suppliers in order to control raw materials and transportation systems. Vertical-a process where he bought out suppliers in order to control raw materials and transportation systems. Horizontal-a process where he bought out all competition by merging. Horizontal-a process where he bought out all competition by merging.

13 Other prominent industrialists included J.P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller. Other prominent industrialists included J.P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller. Morgan was a banker and the owner of U.S. Steel-bought out Carnegie Steel for $500 million. Morgan was a banker and the owner of U.S. Steel-bought out Carnegie Steel for $500 million. This sale made Carnegie the richest man in the world at that time. This sale made Carnegie the richest man in the world at that time.

14 Of all the names associated with big business, none is more important than John D. Rockefeller. Of all the names associated with big business, none is more important than John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller owned the Standard Oil Company, which was the nation’s first trust. Rockefeller owned the Standard Oil Company, which was the nation’s first trust. A trust is a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system. A trust is a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system. In effect, trusts serve to destroy competition and create monopolies (a market in which there is only one supplier of a product and no market competition). In effect, trusts serve to destroy competition and create monopolies (a market in which there is only one supplier of a product and no market competition). Through the trust, Rockefeller was able to dictate prices, eliminate competition, and control the US oil industry. Through the trust, Rockefeller was able to dictate prices, eliminate competition, and control the US oil industry.

15 John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan

16 1900 cartoon about the power/influence of Rockefeller.

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18 Since companies joined together, many workers did the same. Since companies joined together, many workers did the same. They wanted to improve working conditions for men, women, and children-better hours, wages, and environment. They wanted to improve working conditions for men, women, and children-better hours, wages, and environment. Laborers formed unions to accomplish these goals. Laborers formed unions to accomplish these goals.

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20 "The mill is close to the golf course, so on a nice day we can look out the window and watch the men at play." "The mill is close to the golf course, so on a nice day we can look out the window and watch the men at play." Glass factory: "...boys traveled as distance of nearly 22 miles in an 8- hour shift at a constant slow run to and from ovens... average pay of 72 cents per 8-hour shift...." Glass factory: "...boys traveled as distance of nearly 22 miles in an 8- hour shift at a constant slow run to and from ovens... average pay of 72 cents per 8-hour shift...." Silk Mills: "...girl not 9 years old... cleaned bobbins for 3 cents an hour... must stand at their work hour shifts... by night... unceasingly... watching the threads... before... scores of revolving spindles... some of them making 25,000 revolutions per minute...." Silk Mills: "...girl not 9 years old... cleaned bobbins for 3 cents an hour... must stand at their work hour shifts... by night... unceasingly... watching the threads... before... scores of revolving spindles... some of them making 25,000 revolutions per minute...." "Employment of child labor", speed of Honorable Albert J. Beveridge, Wednesday, January 23, "Employment of child labor", speed of Honorable Albert J. Beveridge, Wednesday, January 23, Garment Factory: "...to reach their quota, girls had to put in an 84-hour week at a wage averaging 5 cents an hour..." Garment Factory: "...to reach their quota, girls had to put in an 84-hour week at a wage averaging 5 cents an hour..." Soap-Packing Plants: "...girls were exposed to caustic soda that turned their nails yellow and ate away at their fingers..." Soap-Packing Plants: "...girls were exposed to caustic soda that turned their nails yellow and ate away at their fingers..." Flower-Making Workshops: "...arsenic, liberally applied to produce vivid colors, wrecked the appearance and health... with sores, swelling of the limbs, nausea... complete debility..." Flower-Making Workshops: "...arsenic, liberally applied to produce vivid colors, wrecked the appearance and health... with sores, swelling of the limbs, nausea... complete debility..." Tobacco Stripping: "In their homes,... women and children... endure the most sickening exhalations as they stripped the leaves... tobacco (dust) is everywhere... they sleep in it... (it) seasons their food and befouls the water they drink..." Tobacco Stripping: "In their homes,... women and children... endure the most sickening exhalations as they stripped the leaves... tobacco (dust) is everywhere... they sleep in it... (it) seasons their food and befouls the water they drink..." Cannery: "...children as young as six employed as headers and cleaners (of shrimp and fish)... stand for shifts of 12 hours and longer in open sheds... hands immersed in cold water..." Cannery: "...children as young as six employed as headers and cleaners (of shrimp and fish)... stand for shifts of 12 hours and longer in open sheds... hands immersed in cold water..."

21 Two of the most important union leaders were Samuel Gompers and Eugene V. Debs. Two of the most important union leaders were Samuel Gompers and Eugene V. Debs. Samuel Gompers led the American Federation of Labor (AFL), which focused on improving wages, working hours, and working conditions. Samuel Gompers led the American Federation of Labor (AFL), which focused on improving wages, working hours, and working conditions. The AFL used strikes (refusal of employees to work until employers meet demands) and boycotts (refusal to buy or pay for certain products/services in hopes of forcing producers to meet demands) The AFL used strikes (refusal of employees to work until employers meet demands) and boycotts (refusal to buy or pay for certain products/services in hopes of forcing producers to meet demands) They also used collective bargaining through which employees work as a group to negotiate their demands. They also used collective bargaining through which employees work as a group to negotiate their demands.

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23 Many unions would strike for better conditions. Many unions would strike for better conditions. Oftentimes strikes turned violent as in the Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, and the Pullman Co. Strike. Oftentimes strikes turned violent as in the Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, and the Pullman Co. Strike.

24 Employers greatly disliked the unions and took measures against them. Employers greatly disliked the unions and took measures against them. They often threatened to fire employees who joined unions or forced them to sign contracts stating that they would not join unions. They often threatened to fire employees who joined unions or forced them to sign contracts stating that they would not join unions. Sometimes they would get the courts involved to declare strikes illegal. Sometimes they would get the courts involved to declare strikes illegal.

25 One of the most infamous strikes is the Pullman Strike. One of the most infamous strikes is the Pullman Strike. In 1894, a delegation of employees went to the RR industrialist, George Pullman, to protest the laying off of workers. In 1894, a delegation of employees went to the RR industrialist, George Pullman, to protest the laying off of workers. Pullman responded by firing more workers, which caused the union to go on strike. Pullman responded by firing more workers, which caused the union to go on strike. Pullman closed the plant rather than negotiating with the union leaders. Pullman closed the plant rather than negotiating with the union leaders. The American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs, called for a nationwide boycott of Pullman cars. The American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs, called for a nationwide boycott of Pullman cars. About 120,000 workers rallied to strike. About 120,000 workers rallied to strike. The federal gov’t intervened with an injunction (court order) against the union, and President Cleveland sent in federal troops to make sure it was obeyed. The federal gov’t intervened with an injunction (court order) against the union, and President Cleveland sent in federal troops to make sure it was obeyed. The Pullman Strike established a precedence for factory owners appealing to the courts to end strikes. The Pullman Strike established a precedence for factory owners appealing to the courts to end strikes. This also showed the great amount of industrial unrest throughout the country. This also showed the great amount of industrial unrest throughout the country.

26 (May 11 – c. July 20, 1894) Massive railroad strike in the U.S. After financial reversals caused the Pullman Palace Car Co. to cut wages by 25%, local union members called a strike. The company's president, George Pullman, refused arbitration, and union president Eugene V. Debs called for a nationwide boycott of Pullman cars. George PullmanEugene V. Debs

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