2Copy and complete this chart. Labor Unions YearImportant PeopleCharacteristics/SignificanceNational Labor Union (NLU)Colored National Labor Union (CLU)Knights of LaborAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL)American Railway Union (ARU)Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies)
3Copy and complete this chart. Strikes YearPeopleCauseEffectsGreat Strike of 1877Haymarket AffairXHomestead StrikePullman Company Strike
4X Strikes Strike Year People Cause Effects Great Strike of 1877 1877 Pres. Rutherford B. HayesBaltimore & Ohio Railroad workers protested their second wage cut in two monthsThe strike spread to other railroad lines, stopping traffic for over a week, impeding interstate commerce; Federal troops ended the strikeHaymarket Affair1886XProtest police brutality on strikers; Bomb was thrown into a police linePolice fired on workers; police officers and workers died; Public began to turn against the labor movement
5Strikes Strike Year People Cause Effects Homestead Strike 1892 Henry Clay FrickWage cuts at Carnegie’s Steel Company’s Homestead plant; scabs were brought in and violence irruptedThree detective and nine workers killed; Plant was closed until the strike was broken up by the National GuardPullman Company Strike1893Eugene V. DebsWorkers were laid off; pay cuts without a decrease in the cost of housing; Pullman refused to negotiate with workers; ARU boycotted Pullman trainsScabs were hired and violence irrupted; Federal troops sent in; Debs jailed; Workers fired & blacklisted
6Characteristics/Significance Labor UnionsUnionYearImportant PeopleCharacteristics/SignificanceNational Labor Union (NLU)1866William H. SylvisFirst large-scale nations labor union; some local chapters refused African Americans; 1868 got Congress to legalize an eight-hour day for government workersColored National Labor Union (CLU)1869Isaac MeyersEmphasized cooperation between management and labor; political reform important; Disbanded because Knights of Labor formedKnights of LaborUriah StephensOpen to all workers, regardless of race, gender or degree of skill; equal pay and 8 hour work day; Believed strikes should be the last resort & advocated for arbitration
7Characteristics/Significance Labor UnionsUnionYearImportant PeopleCharacteristics/SignificanceAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL)1886Samuel GompersSkilled workers; Focused on collective bargaining; Used strikes as a major tactic; Won higher wages and shorter workweeksAmerican Railway Union (ARU)1894Eugene V. DebsSpecific to the railroad industry and included skilled and unskilled laborers; Won higher wages by using strikesIndustrial Workers of the World (Wobblies)1905William “Big Bill” HaywoodRadical socialist labor union that wanted government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth; Included miners, lumberers, cannery and dock workers; Included African Americans
8Create and complete this chart. The Expansion of Industry InventionYearInventorSignificanceSteam Engine DrillBessemer ProcessLight bulbTypewriter/ Telephone
9The Expansion of Industry InventionYearInventorSignificanceSteam Engine Drill1859Edwin DrakeDrill for oil; oil used in industryBessemer Process1850Henry Bessemer & William KellyRemoved the carbon from iron to produce steel, which was more flexible, lighter, and rust-resistant; Railroad boom, bridges, skyscrapersLight bulb1876Thomas EdisonInexpensive, convenient source of energy used in factories (factories could be located anywhere, not just near water & workers could work all hours, not just in the dayTypewriter/ Telephone1867/ 1876Christopher Sholes/ Alexander Graham BellNew jobs for women
10The Age of the Railroads Effects of theRapid GrowthOf Railroads
11The Age of the Railroads Many differentRegions of AmericaWere now linkedIron, steel, coal,Lumber, and glassIndustries grew becauseThe railroad neededTheir productsFormation ofStandard timezonesTrade among cities,Towns, and settlementsIncreased. CommunitiesGrew and prosperedRapid GrowthOf RailroadsLong distanceTravel nowPossible forMany AmericansSome people becameVery rich fromProfits made in theRailroad industryNew towns created(ex. Pullman factory,Which created sleeping carsFor trains, had a townBuilt around it toSupport its workers
12Answer these questions in your notebook. What factors made the Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire in NYC so lethal?What was the Gentlemen’s Agreement of ?
13ImmigrationRead about what it was like to come through the inspection stations at Ellis Island and Angel Island.Write a letter home to a friend or family member telling them about your experience at either Ellis Island or Angel Island. (This can be done for homework.)
14Civil Service ReformCopy and answers these questions in your notebook.What is patronage? Why is it bad?What happened to President Garfield?What did the Pendleton Civil Service Act do?
15Vocabulary Munn v. Illinois Interstate Commerce Act Andrew Carnegie Vertical integrationHorizontal integrationSocial DarwinismJohn D. Rockefeller“Robber Barons”Sherman Antitrust ActIndustrial Workers of the WorldMary Harris JonesEllis IslandAngel IslandMelting potNativismChinese Exclusion ActUrbanizationAmericanization movementTenementsMass transitSettlement housesJane AddamsPolitical machineBoss Tweed
18Emergence of Big Business The late 19th century witnessed the emergence of big and powerful businesses, which monopolized their industry.The leaders of these businesses were called “Robber Barons” due to their unscrupulous business practices.
19John D. Rockefeller Rockefeller started Standard Oil Company Why was oil important?
20Trusts Standard Oil Company was the nation’s first trust. A trust is a business arrangement in which a number of companies unite into one system.They want to destroy all competition & create monopolies.
21MonopoliesA monopoly is when a business has complete control over an industry’s production, quality, wages paid, and prices charged.The Sherman Anti-trust Act prevented the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfere with free trade.
22Andrew CarnegieAndrew Carnegie founded a steel company in Pittsburgh, PA (THINK: Pittsburgh Steelers).Steel was important to the railroad industry.He was a millionaire philanthropist who began the public library system.He used vertical and horizontal integration to build his steel empire.
24Vertical Integration A business buys out all of its suppliers EX: McDonalds would buy out the makers of:Buns (Merita Bread Company)Ketchup (Heinz)Meat (Smithfield Meats)French Fries (Idaho)
25Horizontal Integration A business buys out all of its competitorsFor example, McDonald’s would buy out:Burger KingKFCTaco BellSonic
26Social DarwinismSocial Darwinism was a philosophy of this time period which drew from Darwin’s theory of evolution.Put in terms of society, Social Darwinism states that it is acceptable for businesses to be big and controlling, because society is all about the “survival of the fittest”.The weak help the strong survive & thrive.
27Problems for Workers Many problems were faced by workers in factories: Long hoursLow payNo benefits (health insurance, sick leave)Dangerous working conditionsChild labor
28Video Questions- “A Child on Strike” What was your reaction to Camella Teoli’s accident?What labor practices are taken for granted today that were not afforded to people living in 1910?
29Workers UniteWorkers united and formed labor unions, which demanded improved working conditionsLabor unions would strike (work stoppages by union members as a form of protest)Key labor unions included:National Labor UnionIndustrial Workers of the World (Wobblies)American Railway UnionAmerican Federation of Labor (founded by Samuel Gompers)Knights of Labor
32New Immigrants Assimilate Immigrants came to America to work in factories.They often faced culture shock, confusion & anxiety resulting in becoming a part of a new culture that you do not understand.America became a melting pot, a mixture of different people and cultures who blend together and abandon their native language and culture.
33Immigration StationsEllis Island, New York (Statue of Liberty) was the inspection station for European immigrants.Angel Island, San Francisco, CA was the inspection station for Asian immigrants.In 1887, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed which banned entry of all Chinese immigrants, except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.
34Video Questions- “From China to Chinatown: Fong See’s American Dream” How did Fong See overcome the difficulties facing Asian immigrants in America during his lifetime?What did Lisa See learn about living in a diverse society from her great-grandfather’s experience?
36Causes- Explain the Problem Urban ProblemsProblemsCauses- Explain the ProblemSolutions1. Housing Shortages2. Transportation3. Water4. Sanitation5. Crime6. Fire
37Urban Problems Problems Causes Solutions 1. Housing Shortages So many people came to the cities with few housing options:House of the outskirts of town- but, how would they get into the city for work?Tenements that were crowded & unsanitaryNYC passed a law that set standards for plumbing and ventilation2. TransportationA large number of people needed to move within the cityMass transit developed, such as street cars & electric subways3. WaterNeed for safe drinking water as populations grew, because there was inadequate piped water or none at all; Diseases spreadBuilt public waterworks to handle more people; Filtration was introduced
38Urban Problems Problems Causes Solutions 4. Sanitation 5. Crime Horse manure piles; sewage in open gutters; smoke from factories; no trash collectionSewer lines & sanitation departments established5. CrimePoverty led to crime such as pick pocketing and theftEstablished police forces6. FireLimited water supply; Wooden dwelling; Use of candles & kerosene heaters posed fire hazards; Deadly fire in Chicago & after the San Francisco earthquakeFull time fire departments established; Automatic fire sprinklers invented; Replace wood buildings with brick, stone, and concrete
39Urban ReformsA movement called the Social Gospel preached salvation through service to the poorSettlement houses were created, as community centers for people in urban areas, especially immigrants.Settlement houses provided educational, cultural, and social services.
41The Gilded AgeThe time period from 1877-early 1900s is known as the “Gilded Age”.Writer Mark Twain coined this term.Gilded is something covered in a thin layer of gold to make it look nice & shiny.This expression was used to imply that the time period appeared to be prosperous, but that appearance was just covering up the poverty and corruption of society.
42Political MachinesA new power structure emerged in the cities to take control, called political machines.The political machine was an unofficial entity that kept a certain political party in power.Political machines were headed by a “boss” who may or may not hold a political office himself.
43William “Boss” Tweed, Tammany Hall Boss of the NYC Democratic Party
44The Purpose of the Political Machines Political machines provided services to the city, such as police & fire departments.In exchange for votes, the political machines would provide jobs and other services for immigrants.
45Government Corruption Many political machines and government officials became corrupt as their power grew.Graft (using political influence for personal gain) & “kickbacks” (taking money from government construction projects) were common.Ex. Boss Tweed built a NYC Courthouse which actually cost $3 million, but the taxpayers were charged $13 million
46TEST REVIEW Industrialization-Immigration-Urbanization Industrialization: new technologies led to industrialization; robber barons; Rockefeller & Carnegie; Social Darwinism; monopolies; horizontal/vertical integration; trusts- Sherman Antitrust Act= no monopoliesImmigration: Ellis/Angel Island; discrimination; melting pot/assimilation; why they came?; exploitation (problems) of worker; emergence of labor unionsUrbanization: urban problems; reforms; settlement houses; political machine