2 Section 1:The Expansion of Industry: Main Idea: At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fueled an industrial boom.Why it Matters Now: Technological developments of the late 19th century paved the way for the continued growth of American Industry.Key Terms:Bessemer ProcessKey Names:Edwin L. DrakeThomas Alva EdisonChristopher SholesAlexander Graham Bell
3 Before We Start: Story Time!!! The year is 1863 and railroad construction is booming. In six years, the U.S. will be linked by rail from coast to coast. Central Pacific Railroad employs mainly Chinese immigrants to blast tunnels, lay track, and drive spikes, all for low wages……
4 Section 1: The Expansion of Industry: As the settlers continued to push west, America was still largely agricultural – that will all changeIn this chapter, we will see American industry grow to be the largest in the worldHow did it happen?1) Natural Resources2) Governmental support3) Urbanization
5 Black Gold: In 1859, Edwin Drake used a steam engine to drill for oil This breakthrough started an oil boom in the Midwest and later TexasLater, the gasoline would be used for cars
6 Which of these was NOT a reason why the US was experiencing tremendous growth: Natural ResourcesGovernment supportThe gold rushUrbanization
7 Bessemer Steel Process: Coal and iron were plentiful within the U.S.When you removed the carbon from iron, the result was a lighter, more flexible and rust resistant compound – Steel (Bessemer process)BESSEMER CONVERTOR CIRCA 1880
8 Why were iron and oil becoming more sought after? They were newThey both were extremely easy to createBoth were able to be transformed into other more efficient commoditiesNone of the above
9 New Uses For Steel:The railroads, with thousands of miles of track, were the biggest customers for steelOther uses emerged: barbed wire, farm equipment, bridge construction (Brooklyn Bridge- 1883),and the first skyscrapersBrooklyn Bridge: NYC
10 Barbed WireRailroad tracksBridge ConstructionFarm equipmentThese were all main used for steel
11 New Inventions Spur Industry: Can you imagine living in a time when the following inventions were created?1. Electricity (how would we live without it now?)2. Telephone (no text messaging yet)3. Typewriter (before this everything was written by hand)
12 Electricity: Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison perfected the incandescent light bulb in 1880Later he invented an entire system for producing and distributing electricityElectricity would later power virtually everything“One percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.”
14 Why do you think that the average person can relate so well with Edison? Because he was smartBecause he tried and failed so oftenBecause he made lots of moneyAll of the above
15 The Typewriter: Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter in 1867 His invention forever affected office work and paperworkIt also opened many new jobs for womenThis is the time period when secretary jobs were primarily held by women….has this changed much?
16 The Telephone:Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson unveiled their invention in 1876We are still using their invention today
17 In what ways do you think these new inventions changed the lifestyles of people living during this time period:People became more efficientPeople were able to communicated betterPeople were able to work more hoursAll of the above could be true
18 Section 2: The Age of the Railroads: Main Idea: The growth and consolidation of railroads benefited the nation but also led to corruption and required government regulation.Why it Matters Now: Railroads made possible the expansion of industry across the United States.Key Terms:Transcontinental RailroadMunn vs. IllinoisInterstate Commerce Act
19 The Age of RailroadsAs railroad companies continued to grow, their influence over others became out of controlNew reforms will be needed to keep the railroad companies in check
21 A National Network:The transcontinental Railroad - cross country route, connecting many cities.Out-of-work Civil War vets and immigrants from China and Ireland provided most of the difficult laborMany were injured and even killed laying track
22 Which group provided most of the labor on the railroads? ExodustersWhite settlersImmigrantsThe railroad owners
23 Railroad and Time:Before 1883, each city still operated on its own timeProfessor C.F. Dowd proposed dividing the earth into 24 time zonesThe U.S. would be divided into 4 zones: the eastern, Central, Mountain, and PacificCan you imagine trying to run a business when everyone is on a different time schedule?
30 Interstate Commerce Act: In 1887, the Federal government re-established their control over railroad activitiesCongress passed the Interstate Commerce Act – federal government regulation of railroads (this didn’t work right away)
31 Section 3: Big Business and Labor Main Idea: The expansion of industry resulted in the growth of big business and prompted laborers to form unions to better their lives.Why it Matters Now: Many of the strategies used today in industry and in the labor movement, such as striking, have their origins in the late 19th century.Terms:Vertical and horizontal integrationSocial DarwinismSherman Antitrust ActAmerican Federation of Labor (AFL)Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)Names:Andrew CarnegieJohn D. RockefellerSamuel GompersEugene V. DebsMary Harris Jones
32 Section 3: Big Business and Labor Andrew Carnegie was one of the first industrial tycoonHe entered the steel industry in 1873 after making BIG $ with the railroad industryCarnegie attempted to control as much of the steel industry as possibleCarnegie Mellon University
33 Carnegie Business Practices: Carnegie initiated many new business practices such as;1. Searching for ways to make better products more cheaply2. Accounting systems to track expenses3. Attracting quality people by offering them stock & benefitsANDREW CARNEGIE
34 Why did people like to work for Andrew Carnegie? He treated them fairlyHe provided them with good benefitsHe had good ideas about how to make his business betterAll of the above are true.25
35 Carnegie’s Smart Plan: Vertical integration - buying out his suppliers coal fields, iron mines, ore freighters, and rail linesHorizontal Integration – buying out companies that produce similar products
36 This type of integration describes a company buying out similar companies: VerticalHorizontal
37 Business Growth and Consolidation These kinds of business practices could result in a monopoly - complete control over an industryExample:In 1870, Rockefeller Standard Oil Company owned 2% of the country’s crude oilBy 1880 – it controlled 90% of U.S. crude oilIs this ok?
38 Robber Barons:As more and more monopolies formed and abused their power, critics began using the term “Robber Barons”Even though they made LOTS of $, they still gave back (schools, hospitals, etc.)What’s going on here?
39 Why did people call Carnegie and Rockefeller “robber barons?” They gave away money that they stole from peopleThey felt it was wrong to buy out other businessesThey didn’t call them robber baronsCarnegie was a convicted felon.
40 Sherman Anti-Trust Act: The government had to respond – the “robber barons” were getting way to powerful.Sherman Anti-Trust Act made it illegal to form a monopoly (Trust)This was tough – big companies would just split up into smaller companies
41 Labor Unions Emerge:Workers were working 6-7 days a week for more than 10 hours a dayIn 1882, an average of 675 workers were killed PER WEEK on the jobWorkers realized they needed to organize to get change to happenWorkers created Unions to negotiate wages, hours, conditions, striking
42 Striking and Violence: Some strikes, turned deadly – labor leaders and police clashed (many times right in front of the factories)Eugene V. Debs – labor leader that helped to organize unionsOutcomes –1. Companies learned to treat their employees better2. Unions became more powerful
43 Why were workers attracted to unions? They weren’tThey paid them more moneyThey protected them from unfair business practices and working conditionsThey controlled big businesses