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Important Questions to Ponder What factors contributed to the rise of American industry? How did government policy on business lend itself to abuse? In.

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Presentation on theme: "Important Questions to Ponder What factors contributed to the rise of American industry? How did government policy on business lend itself to abuse? In."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Important Questions to Ponder What factors contributed to the rise of American industry? How did government policy on business lend itself to abuse? In what ways did the entrepreneurs help to shape the American industrial revolution? How did Labor address the abuses of the industrial revolution?

3 Report on Manufacturers 1791

4 Factors Encouraging Industrial Growth 1791 – Alexander Hamilton issues the Report on Manufacturers Hamilton believed wealth of America’s natural resources assured development of industry America’s natural resources not fully developed before Civil War

5 Constitution and Government Policy the Constitution assisted the growth of America industry and business in the following ways: – coining of money by Federal Government provided stable currency for business transactions – regulating interstate trade made possible “national laws” for industry and transportation

6 Constitution and Government Policy – tariffs protected against foreign competition – an established system of patents protected and encouraged inventors – 5 th and 14 th Amendments provided that no person could be deprived property without due process of law

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8 Corporations & Monopolies

9 Corporations a business arrangement whereby capital is raised by selling shares of stock in return for profit and partial ownership in a company – profit and ownership based on amount of shares purchased by each individual investor – losses limited to amount of the individual investment

10 Monopolies huge corporations formed in last half of the 19 th Century – by 1900 less than 2% of manufacturing companies produced 50% of all manufactured goods some companies became monopolies: – gained complete control over the price and production of a particular item (oil, steel, flour, etc.) – all serious competition eliminated

11 Regroup What did Hamilton believe assured the development of American industry? Whose responsibility of interstate commerce? What is the purpose of a patent? What is a corporation? What is a monopoly?

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13 The Entrepreneurs Entrepreneur: a person who organizes, manages and assumes the risk of creating and running a business. They also claim the lion’s share of the profits. Can you provide a modern example of an entrepreneur?

14 EXAMPLE 1900 – J.P. Morgan formed the United States Steel Corporation: – merged a number of steel corporations – U.S. Steel became the world’s largest corporation (monopoly)

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16 Corporate Monopoly

17 Entrepreneurs business leaders in post – Civil War period referred to as either of the following: – Organize and manage risks of business & take lion’s share of the profits – Buy & sell companies – Known as “robber barons” for negative action – Known as captains of industry for the positives

18 Robber Barons/Captains of Industry

19 John D. Rockefeller developed the Standard Oil Company into enormous corporate monopoly: – controlled 95% of America’s refined oil business – used horizontal integration horizontal integration – a business practice whereby a corporation buys up rival companies for the purpose of eliminating competition

20 Refined Oil Standard Oil Company Horizontal Integration

21 Shipping & Railroads

22 Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Steel Company produced over one – half of the nation’s steel – used vertical integration to develop his corporation – vertical integration – a form of business organization where a corporation acquires businesses that contribute to the completion of a finished product

23 Steel Carnegie Steel Company Vertical Integration

24 Henry Ford produced the Model T Ford – assembly line and mass production techniques made car affordable for average person – used vertical integration techniques – paid high wages – refused to recognize labor unions

25 Automobiles Ford Motor Company Model T Ford Assembly Line

26 “ Competition is the keen cutting edge of business, always shaving away at costs”. Henry Ford

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28 Regroup What is an entrepreneur? Examples? What is horizontal integration? What is vertical integration? How did the assembly line dramatically change industrial production? What was the benefit for the consumer? The Producer?

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30 Laissez – faire a “hands off” policy, whereby government interferes with business as little as possible – believed government should not regulate business beyond providing an atmosphere allowing business development, such as the following: stable currency protective tariffs

31 Competition and Absorption large corporations merged and combined to do the following: – eliminate competition – increase profits – Increase business efficiency many Americans opposed monopolies: – feared lack of competition – called for laws to regulate big business abuses (especially railroads)

32 Competition & Absorption

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34 Social Darwinism Used to justify imperialism and industrialism – Based on writing of Charles Darwin – Origin of the Species – plants and animals evolved over time – through “natural selection” certain species lived while others died out “survival of the fittest” Darwin’s theory dealt only with plant and animal kingdoms, not human society

35 “While the law of competition may sometimes be hard… it ensures the survival of the fittest”. Andrew Carnegie

36 Charles Darwin “Origin of Species”

37 Herbert Spencer Applied theory of evolution to human society Social Statics (book title): – human society evolves through competition – certain people advance over others through hard work, intelligence or strength (survival of the fittest) – human progress is natural and can not be stopped – all progress in the result of competition – Coined term “survival of the fittest”

38 Herbert Spencer “Social Statics”

39 Herbert Spencer Spencer’s theory called “Social Darwinism – embraced by most Americans What should the role of government be? – How much should the government be involved in our economy? – Should the market determine prices, conditions and so on?

40 “All socialism involves slavery”. Herbert Spencer

41 Andrew Carnegie Believed in Social Darwinism Carnegie put forth his social philosophy in a series of magazine articles entitled, “The Gospel of Wealth”

42 Andrew Carnegie Gospel of Wealth (1889) stated the following: – poverty the result of a character flaw – hard work and thrift would lead to success – government should not interfere with competitive struggle between individuals – government’s only function is to maintain order and protect property – laissez – faire the most efficient economic policy – the rich are obligated to help society through philanthropy

43 Andrew Carnegie “Gospel of Wealth”

44 “I resolved to stop accumulating and begin the infinitely more serious and difficult task of wise distribution”. Andrew Carnegie

45 Carnegie & The “Gospel of Wealth”

46 Carnegie & Philanthropy

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48 Henry George disagreed with the “Gospel of Wealth” – angered at a society of poverty amidst great wealth – social philosophy put forth in book entitled, “Progress and Poverty”

49 Henry George Progress and Poverty stated the following: – rich do not have higher moral character than the poor – rich were lucky in grabbing the best land and other sources of wealth first – rich should therefore be heavily taxed ideas of Henry George rejected by most Americans – ideas considered too radical

50 Henry George “Progress and Poverty”

51 “What has destroyed every previous civilization has been…the unequal distribution of wealth and power”. Henry George “The tragedy of the poor is the poverty of their aspirations”. Adam Smith

52 Regroup What argument was used to justify imperialism and industrialism? What is “Social Darwinism”? What arguments did Carnegie make in the Gospel of Wealth? What is philanthropy?

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54 The Gilded Age (1877 – 1900) an era of great wealth and industrialization – noted for conspicuous consumption conspicuous consumption – the habit of those who had money to spend it in ways that made their wealth most obvious (enormous mansions, yachts, elaborate balls and parties)

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59 The Gilded Age (1877 – 1900) upper classes also considered philanthropy a social responsibility to help the less fortunate – Rockefeller and Carnegie gave away hundreds of millions of dollars many workers poor and believed they were exploited during the Gilded Age – factory and mine workers received very low wages – called “wage slavery” by workers and labor unions

60 Philanthropists

61 The Gilded Age (1877 – 1900) many Americans demanded government action against the power and perceived abuses of big business – OWS, anyone? – “It’s not fair”!!

62 “God gave me my money. I believe the power to make money is a gift from God…Having been endowed with the gift…it is my duty to make money and still more money and use the money… for the good of my fellow man according to the dictates of my own conscience”. John D. Rockefeller

63 Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) passed by the U.S. Congress to do the following: – outlaw any monopoly or conspiracy in “restraint of trade” – aimed at preventing monopolies from controlling the market – Create more competition which would have the effect of lowering prices on consumer goods

64 Regroup What was the Gilded Age and what made it gilded? What is conspicuous consumption? What was the Sherman Antitrust Act and why was it perceived as necessary by many Americans?

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66 Labor Movement Begins union membership and activity developed rapidly in industrial era – working conditions improved through collective bargaining collective bargaining – the process whereby union leaders represent union members in negotiations with management over the issues of wages, hours, conditions etc.

67 Collective Bargaining

68 Knights of Labor

69 organized by Uriah Stephens in 1869 – accepted skilled and unskilled workers – all meetings kept secret In 1879 the K of L – ends secrecy of union meetings – membership grows into nation’s largest union

70 Uriah Stephens

71 Knights of Labor the K of L had the following major goals: – an eight hour workday – no child labor – equal pay for men and women – the formation of cooperatives so workers could work for themselves

72 Knights of Labor Haymarket Riot (1886): – a violent strike in Chicago’s Haymarket Square – seven policemen killed by a bomb – Knights blamed and accused of being anarchists – membership in the K of L therefore declined

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74 American Federation of Labor Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886 – larger membership than the Knights AFL favored the following “bread and butter” goals: – eight hour work days – safer working conditions – higher wages – workers compensation insurance – reduced immigration

75 American Federation of Labor AFL had the following membership policies: – only accepted skilled members – believed unskilled workers easily replaceable – skilled workers therefore had more bargaining power AFL used the following methods to achieve their goals: – favored cooperation with management – lobbied for pro – labor legislation on state and national levels – reluctant but willing to strike

76 Samuel Gompers

77 “Show me a country that has no strikes and I’ll show you a country in which there is no liberty”. Samuel Gompers President, AFL

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79 Homestead Strike (1892) Unionized iron and steel workers opposed pay cuts – Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers Homestead Strike failed for the following reasons: – state militia used to put down violence – union bankrupted – union lost public sympathy and support

80 Pullman Strike (1894) Pullman Company built a company town (Pullman, Illinois) – provided housing and stores for employees – 1894 – company cut wages 25 – 40% – rents and company store prices not cut – company refused to negotiate with workers

81 Pullman Strike (1894) American Railway Union: – led by Eugene V. Debs – organized nationwide boycott against Pullman – boycott prevented delivery of federal mail – Debs jailed for disobeying court injunction injunction – a court order prohibiting a certain action (strike,boycott, protest march, etc.)

82 Eugene V. Debs American Railway Union

83 Debs Calls For Nationwide Boycott Against Pullman

84 Pullman Strike (1894) The Pullman Strike had the following results: – army used to crush the strike – 12 people killed – 2000 railway cars destroyed – a court injunction successfully broke strike

85 Results of Labor Strikes violent strikes lost unions public support and sympathy: – viewed as anarchist and too radical – especially after Russian Revolution (fear of communism) union leadership hoped to reach agreement through the following techniques: – collective bargaining – Mediation – arbitration

86 “The most heroic word in all languages is revolution ”. Eugene V. Debs “It is impossible for capitalists and laborers to have common goals”. Samuel Gompers President, AFL

87 Results of Labor Strikes collective bargaining – negotiation between management and labor: – should negotiations break down a third party is sought mediation – a neutral third party seeks a solution between labor and management – mediator’s is solution “non – binding” arbitration – labor and management agree to abide by the decision of a neutral third party

88 Regroup What is collective bargaining? What is the result/product of collective bargaining? What were the “bread and butter” goals of the AFL? What two major strikes took place during this time? What were the causes/results?

89 Important Questions to Ponder What factors contributed to the rise of American industry? How did government policy on business lend itself to abuse? In what ways did the entrepreneurs help to shape the American industrial revolution? How did Labor address the abuses of the industrial revolution?


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