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Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. Instructional Procedures Ch. 8 Reading Basals Language Experience Whole Language Computers.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. Instructional Procedures Ch. 8 Reading Basals Language Experience Whole Language Computers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. Instructional Procedures Ch. 8 Reading Basals Language Experience Whole Language Computers

2 Reading achievement in the #1 goal of School Reform... Effective reading teachers use all options to meet the needs of their students: Basal readers: includes teaching word identification, meanings, comprehension, study skills, and literature. Literature based: Integrates reading skills with literature selections. presentation.

3 Whole-language Concentration on Developing both reading and writing in a natural way.Concentration on Developing both reading and writing in a natural way. Individualized reading-Students learn best when they select their own materials and receive specific skill instruction based on their own need.Individualized reading-Students learn best when they select their own materials and receive specific skill instruction based on their own need.

4 Language experience Students learn best through reading materials based on their own language and experiences. Students read what they have written.Students learn best through reading materials based on their own language and experiences. Students read what they have written. Computer-Students respond best to step- by-step sequential presentation of information.Computer-Students respond best to step- by-step sequential presentation of information.

5 Basal readers; Have driven reading instruction and are widely used.Have driven reading instruction and are widely used. Each book is increasingly difficult.Each book is increasingly difficult. Stories are organized around themes and involve all the “strands” of language arts.Stories are organized around themes and involve all the “strands” of language arts. Practice material provides support with word id, meanings, phonics, comprehension strategies.Practice material provides support with word id, meanings, phonics, comprehension strategies.

6 Teacher’s Guides provides: Pre-reading, during reading, and post reading development.Pre-reading, during reading, and post reading development. Each story has a three step process: reading and responding, literature-based instruction, and integrated curriculum.Each story has a three step process: reading and responding, literature-based instruction, and integrated curriculum. The story is most important. Directed reading helps the student interact with the text successfully.The story is most important. Directed reading helps the student interact with the text successfully.

7 Teacher’s guide for Basal Readers includes: Detailed lesson plans with strategies and skills for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Includes assessment procedures.Detailed lesson plans with strategies and skills for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Includes assessment procedures. List of supplemental books from the library for use in content areas.List of supplemental books from the library for use in content areas. Supplements (extras) for problems areas.Supplements (extras) for problems areas.

8 Teacher’s edition. Pictures of characters, wkbk pages, etc.Pictures of characters, wkbk pages, etc. films, filmstrip, videos, and CD-ROMsfilms, filmstrip, videos, and CD-ROMs Teacher’s edition of workbooks.Teacher’s edition of workbooks. Record keeping guide or checklist.Record keeping guide or checklist.

9 Student’s Basals Reading book with literature selections in graduated difficulty.Reading book with literature selections in graduated difficulty. Workbook for each level.Workbook for each level. Libraries with paperback selections.Libraries with paperback selections. Posters, big books.Posters, big books. Software programsSoftware programs Games, and activities.Games, and activities.

10 Advantages: Anthology of different genres of literature.Anthology of different genres of literature. Sequential order of reading difficulty.Sequential order of reading difficulty. Teacher guidesTeacher guides Balance of time in all language areas.Balance of time in all language areas. Review is providedReview is provided

11 Advantages (cont.) Controlled vocabulary to keep frustration levels low.Controlled vocabulary to keep frustration levels low. Prepared materials save teacher time.Prepared materials save teacher time. Formal and informal assessments are provided.Formal and informal assessments are provided.

12 Newer Basals Isolated instruction of word identification and comprehension skills has been discouraged.Isolated instruction of word identification and comprehension skills has been discouraged. Serious attempt of integration all language arts.Serious attempt of integration all language arts. Fine literature should be used to teach reading.Fine literature should be used to teach reading.

13 Modern Basals Have responded to reading research with:Have responded to reading research with: –quality literature including multicultural stories. –Authentic literature and prior knowledge story preparation. –Link of reading and writing. –Lessons are interactive with emphasis on decoding skills and comprehension strategies.

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15 Modern basal readers: Cooperative and partner grouping is encouraged.Cooperative and partner grouping is encouraged. Assessment is ongoing (formal and informal).Assessment is ongoing (formal and informal). Partnership between home and schoolPartnership between home and school

16 Economy of teacher time No teacher would have the time to prepare lessons in the detail established in the basal readers.No teacher would have the time to prepare lessons in the detail established in the basal readers. Detail is tedious, but experienced teachers know to look for the ‘meat’Detail is tedious, but experienced teachers know to look for the ‘meat’ Teacher must be knowledgeable and flexible.Teacher must be knowledgeable and flexible.

17 Work books Value has been debated.Value has been debated. Deal with a wide variety of skillsDeal with a wide variety of skills Wkbk. Exercised are brief which makes them good for students with short attention spans.Wkbk. Exercised are brief which makes them good for students with short attention spans.

18 Workbooks should: Match the lesson that was taught.Match the lesson that was taught. Provide review of skills.Provide review of skills. Relevant tasks with extra practice.Relevant tasks with extra practice. Vocabulary and concept age appropriate.Vocabulary and concept age appropriate. Page layout: attractive and usefulPage layout: attractive and useful

19 Workbooks should: Content should offer enough practice to ensure learning.Content should offer enough practice to ensure learning. Some should be fun.Some should be fun. Consistent responses with pattern from page to page.Consistent responses with pattern from page to page. Teacher should tell students why these exercises are important.Teacher should tell students why these exercises are important.

20 Directed reading activity DRA Readiness- key words and prior knowledge.Readiness- key words and prior knowledge. Silent reading with a purpose.Silent reading with a purpose. Comprehension development.Comprehension development. Purposeful oral reading.Purposeful oral reading. Word id, vocabulary, comprehension and study skills should be developed.Word id, vocabulary, comprehension and study skills should be developed.

21 Pre reading activities: Building on background knowledgeBuilding on background knowledge Develop interest in the storyDevelop interest in the story Predict what will happen.Predict what will happen. Set purpose for reading.Set purpose for reading.

22 Post Reading discussion Answer purpose setting questions.Answer purpose setting questions. Discuss outcomesDiscuss outcomes Summarize the storySummarize the story Ask questions on different cognitive levels.Ask questions on different cognitive levels. Reflect on classmates ideas.Reflect on classmates ideas. Reread orally with a purpose.Reread orally with a purpose.

23 Follow-up activities Direct instruction of specific comprehension skills.Direct instruction of specific comprehension skills. Practice new vocabularyPractice new vocabulary Combine reading and writing.Combine reading and writing. Complete creative literature activities.Complete creative literature activities. Use strategies in content area reading.Use strategies in content area reading.

24 A Critical view Boring content, cultural bias, no literary merit, repetitive language.Boring content, cultural bias, no literary merit, repetitive language. 3 reading groups based on SES. Same groups all year long.3 reading groups based on SES. Same groups all year long. Restrict top readers to the basal.Restrict top readers to the basal. Don’t let student pick their own reading materials.Don’t let student pick their own reading materials.

25 Durkin study: Few teachers introduced new vocabulary.Few teachers introduced new vocabulary. No one developed background knowledge.No one developed background knowledge. Rarely did the teachers present discussion questions before they read the story. Teachers did not give them direction for reading silently.Rarely did the teachers present discussion questions before they read the story. Teachers did not give them direction for reading silently.

26 Silent reading of the story: Uncommon in 1st grade. In 3rd and 5th, teachers didn’t ask follow up questions.Uncommon in 1st grade. In 3rd and 5th, teachers didn’t ask follow up questions. Teachers spent too much time oral reading.Teachers spent too much time oral reading. All teachers used the practice section, but not the enrichment section.All teachers used the practice section, but not the enrichment section.

27 Individual differences: Teachers didn’t use recommendations for different strategies.Teachers didn’t use recommendations for different strategies. Teachers didn’t have time.Teachers didn’t have time. Manual recommendations aren’t important.Manual recommendations aren’t important. Give more time for new vocabulary, background information, and fewer assignments is a good choice.Give more time for new vocabulary, background information, and fewer assignments is a good choice.

28 Learning to use the basal Takes time for 1st year teachers.Takes time for 1st year teachers. If the steps aren’t followed, sequence of skills is lost.If the steps aren’t followed, sequence of skills is lost. Self designed material may use capricious approaches.Self designed material may use capricious approaches. Transfer of reading skills to recreational reading is not automatic.Transfer of reading skills to recreational reading is not automatic.

29 Literature based instruction: Library books and book fairs with SSR.Library books and book fairs with SSR. Magazines with time to read them.Magazines with time to read them. Write plays, semester project: Middle Ages or recycling.Write plays, semester project: Middle Ages or recycling. Career study with guest speakers who promote reading.Career study with guest speakers who promote reading.

30 Beyond the basal readers for StorytellingStorytelling menusmenus musicmusic gamesgames projectsprojects playsplays Language experience recipes cereal boxes read along cassettes comic books computers puppet shows.

31 Language Experience Approach: Using student experiences for writing charts and stories.Using student experiences for writing charts and stories. Based on the relationship of child’s language and experiences to produce meaning related text.Based on the relationship of child’s language and experiences to produce meaning related text. Includes all areas of language.Includes all areas of language.

32 Features of LEA: Shared experienceShared experience Shared talk about the experienceShared talk about the experience Decisions made by the group about the writing.Decisions made by the group about the writing. Shared reading of the story or chart.Shared reading of the story or chart. Follow-up activities.Follow-up activities.

33 Individual Experience Stories: Follow up to field trips.Follow up to field trips. Direct and indirect discourse: Different ink for different writers.Direct and indirect discourse: Different ink for different writers. Photo of each child with discourse balloon attached. Later rewrite using quotations marks.Photo of each child with discourse balloon attached. Later rewrite using quotations marks. Write summary of science experiments.Write summary of science experiments.

34 Disadvantages of LEA Can’t control difficulty of vocabulary.Can’t control difficulty of vocabulary. Not enough repetitions to learn sight words.Not enough repetitions to learn sight words. Too much of teacher’s time to prepare.Too much of teacher’s time to prepare. Individual needs are overlooked.Individual needs are overlooked. Used with other methods it is an advantage.Used with other methods it is an advantage.

35 Technology in Literacy Instruction. CAI- Computer assisted instruction canCAI- Computer assisted instruction can –show different material in different learning modes: auditory, visual, kinesthetic, tactile. –permit the learner to respond by writing or speaking. –Give supplementary instruction to difficult ideas. –Provide immediate feedback. –Instant record keeping

36 Software programs Drill and practice:Drill and practice: tutorial dialoguestutorial dialogues simulations,simulations, learning gameslearning games creativecreative

37 CMI Computer managed instruction: Diagnostic reading testsDiagnostic reading tests –score the test –record results –prescribe appropriate instruction –The teacher must interact with the program to make it successful.

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39 Benefits State the benefits to your audience for taking this action:State the benefits to your audience for taking this action: –Benefit #1 –Benefit #2 –Benefit #3 TIP State the benefits in terms that relate to your audience’s interests, needs, and preferences.

40 Benefits Review Make the actions and benefits credible by using reliable, verifiable evidence. Evidence may take the form of statistics, demonstrations, testimonials, incidents, or exhibits.Make the actions and benefits credible by using reliable, verifiable evidence. Evidence may take the form of statistics, demonstrations, testimonials, incidents, or exhibits. Benefit #1Benefit #1 –Evidence Benefit #2Benefit #2 –Evidence Benefit #3Benefit #3 –Evidence

41 Close Restate the specific action you recommend and the key benefits. State the benefits last.Restate the specific action you recommend and the key benefits. State the benefits last. TIP Remember, your sense of conviction and your involvement with the content of the presentation are critical to its success.


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