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The Triumph of Industry The Rise of Big Business.

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1 The Triumph of Industry The Rise of Big Business

2 Corporations Develop Corporation- A number of people share the ownership of a business. If a corporation experiences economic problems, the investors lose no more money than what they had originally put into the business. Corporations access to large amounts of money, funded new technology, entered new industries and run large plants across the country.

3 Gaining a Competitive Edge Corporations tried to maximize profits in several ways: – Paying workers less wages – Advertising products – Gaining a Monopoloy – Monopoly- Complete control of a product. – Cartel- businesses making the same product would agree to limit their production and keep the prices high for that particular item. – Trusts- Companies assign their stock to a board of trustees, who combine them into a new organization. The trustees run the organization, paying themselves dividends on profits.

4 FORMATION Organized by associates and legalized through state charter OWNERSHIP Stockholders, according to number of shares CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT Through Board of Directors, elected by the stockholders (usually one vote per share of stock held) NET PROFITS AND LOSSES Dividends: to stockholders = profits Lose: only the amount invested by stockholders according to number of shares LIMITED LIABILITY

5 Conglomerate A group of unrelated business owned by a single corporation. Still used today by companies that merge. Pool Competing companies that agree to fix prices and divide regions among members so that only one company operates in each area. Outlawed today. Trust(Monopoly) Companies in related fields agree to combine under the direction of a single board of trustees, which meant that shareholders had no say. Outlawed today. Holding Company A company that buys controlling amounts of stock in related companies, thus becoming the majority shareholder, and holding considerable say over each company's business operations. Outlawed today.

6 Monopoly Trusts or Monopoly Companies in related fields combine under the direction of a single board of trustees. Shareholders had no say. Outlawed today.

7 BIGGER IS BETTER trust or monopoly A trust or monopoly controls an entire industry make product cheaper lower prices to customer

8

9 Captain of Industry Came from a wealthy family Came from a wealthy family Bought a substitute during the Civil War. Bought a substitute during the Civil War. Standard Oil Formed the first modern corporations in the oil industry Standard Oil first billionaire Was the first billionaire in the U.S. by Vertical Integration and Horizontal Integration Used Vertical Integration and Horizontal Integration to gain a monopoly in the oil business. Cartoon Rockefeller

10 Philanthropist Gave millions of his money to hospitals and colleges.Gave millions of his money to hospitals and colleges. University of ChicagoUniversity of Chicago Spellman CollegeSpellman College National ParksNational Parks United NationsUnited Nations WilliamsburgWilliamsburg Cancer ResearchCancer ResearchPhilanthropist Gave millions of his money to hospitals and colleges.Gave millions of his money to hospitals and colleges. University of ChicagoUniversity of Chicago Spellman CollegeSpellman College National ParksNational Parks United NationsUnited Nations WilliamsburgWilliamsburg Cancer ResearchCancer Research Rockefeller

11 Captain of Industry Monopolized the steel industry Rags to riches story---came from Scotland very poor. Bessemer ProcessUsed scientific ideas (Bessemer Process) to develop a better way to produce steel and sell a quality a product for an inexpensive price. Used Horizontal integration. Captain of Industry Monopolized the steel industry Rags to riches story---came from Scotland very poor. Bessemer ProcessUsed scientific ideas (Bessemer Process) to develop a better way to produce steel and sell a quality a product for an inexpensive price. Used Horizontal integration. Carneige Picture

12 Coke fields purchased by Carnegie Coke fields Iron ore deposits purchased by Carnegie Coke fields Iron ore deposits Steel mills purchased by Carnegie Coke fields Iron ore deposits Steel mills Ships purchased by Carnegie Coke fields Iron ore deposits Steel mills Ships Railroads purchased by Carnegie Vertical Integration Vertical Integration You control all phases of production from the raw material to the finished product Horizontal Integration Horizontal Integration Buy out your competition until you have control of a single area of industry

13 Modern Day Example of Vertical Integration Ford Motor company – What goes in an automobile? – Why is it an advantage for a company to own/control all production? Ford Motor company – What goes in an automobile? – Why is it an advantage for a company to own/control all production? Vertical Integration You control all phases of production from the raw material to the finished product

14 Advantages Vertical Integration You are always in control of supply of the products you need You are always in control of supply of the products you need In control of labor cost, land/resources In control of labor cost, land/resources Always in control of the cost Always in control of the cost Schedule your production of autos because you are in control of all factors Schedule your production of autos because you are in control of all factors Can you give another example of this? Can you give another example of this? You are always in control of supply of the products you need You are always in control of supply of the products you need In control of labor cost, land/resources In control of labor cost, land/resources Always in control of the cost Always in control of the cost Schedule your production of autos because you are in control of all factors Schedule your production of autos because you are in control of all factors Can you give another example of this? Can you give another example of this?

15 Other Vertical Integrations Boeing Boeing Anheiser-Busch: all grown by own producers Anheiser-Busch: all grown by own producers McDonald’s: own cattle ranches McDonald’s: own cattle ranches Oil companies Oil companies AOL Time Warner AOL Time Warner Boeing Boeing Anheiser-Busch: all grown by own producers Anheiser-Busch: all grown by own producers McDonald’s: own cattle ranches McDonald’s: own cattle ranches Oil companies Oil companies AOL Time Warner AOL Time Warner

16 Horizontal Integration Examples – Standard Oil – Carnegie Steel – Swift & Company: meat producers – United Fruit Company: bananas – Dole Pineapple Examples – Standard Oil – Carnegie Steel – Swift & Company: meat producers – United Fruit Company: bananas – Dole Pineapple Horizontal Integration Buy out your competition until you have control of a single area of industry

17 Modern Day Examples of Horizontal Integration Microsoft Microsoft PG & E PG & E Comcast Comcast Starbucks Starbucks De Beers De Beers Microsoft Microsoft PG & E PG & E Comcast Comcast Starbucks Starbucks De Beers De Beers

18 Formed a steamship company in 1829 Dominated shipping along the Atlantic 1849 established steamship that carried people from New York to San Francisco in Gold Rush days Leading U.S. steamship owner, nicknamed “The Commodore” Gained control of the Hudson River Railroad Formed a steamship company in 1829 Dominated shipping along the Atlantic 1849 established steamship that carried people from New York to San Francisco in Gold Rush days Leading U.S. steamship owner, nicknamed “The Commodore” Gained control of the Hudson River Railroad

19 After Civil War Vanderbilt bought most railroad lines from New York to Chicago 1877, controlled 4,500 miles of railroads Worth over $100 million Philanthropist--donated $1 million to Vanderbilt University After Civil War Vanderbilt bought most railroad lines from New York to Chicago 1877, controlled 4,500 miles of railroads Worth over $100 million Philanthropist--donated $1 million to Vanderbilt University

20 Extortion: Extortion: Forced against your will RebatesRebates : discount or refund on “freight charges” Drawbacks / Kickbacks:Drawbacks / Kickbacks: Standard Oil gave certain railroads all its shipping business if it agreed to charge Standard Oil 25% to 50% less than its competitors Buyouts:Buyouts: Larger corporations forced smaller businesses to sell out CongressCongress was “bought out” by the monopolies Spies:Spies: Stealing your competitor's ideas robber Small businesses Small businesses complained “monopolies” eliminated fair competition

21 rebatesControlled the railroad by forcing them to pay him rebates because of the volume of business he gave them. “Rock a Fellow”Was called “Rock a Fellow” by many Pay no man a profitRuthless business man: “Pay no man a profit” Cartoon Rockefeller

22 Rockefeller/Control Govt laissez faire Rockefeller was so wealthy, he dictated to the U.S. Government to protect big business---- laissez faire

23 free enterprise Rockefeller would be hated by many because he had too much control over the oil industry and the government as viewed by the common man---- -Some believed he was corrupt because he took away the right to compete- -- free enterprise

24 Trusts control govt Big business, monopolies controlled Congress through bribery. This is corruption

25 “History repeats itself-----The Robber Barons of the Middle Ages and the Robber Barons of Today…..”

26 “ Robber Barons ”  Business leaders built their fortunes by stealing from the public.  They drained the country of its natural resources.  They persuaded public officials to interpret laws in their favor.  They ruthlessly drove their competitors to ruin.  They paid their workers meager wages and forced them to toil under dangerous and unhealthful conditions. “ Captains of Industry ”  The business leaders served their nation in a positive way.  They increased the supply of goods by building factories.  They raised productivity and expanded markets.  They created jobs that enabled many Americans to buy new goods and raise their standard of living.  They also created museums, libraries, and universities, many of which still serve the public today. Robber Barons or Captains of Industry

27 Social Darwinism  British economist, Herbert Spencer.  Advocate of laissez- faire.  Adapted Darwin ’ s ideas from the “ Origin of Species ” to humans.  Belief that there was a natural upper class and lower class.  “ Survival of the fittest ”  British economist, Herbert Spencer.  Advocate of laissez- faire.  Adapted Darwin ’ s ideas from the “ Origin of Species ” to humans.  Belief that there was a natural upper class and lower class.  “ Survival of the fittest ”

28 Social Darwinism Belief that in the economic world the strongest companies will survive “The growth of a large business is merely a survival of the fittest.” J. Rockefeller Belief that in the economic world the strongest companies will survive “The growth of a large business is merely a survival of the fittest.” J. Rockefeller

29 Social Darwinism Social Darwinists believed that companies struggled for survival in the economic world and the government should not tamper with this natural process. The fittest business leaders would survive and would improve society. Belief that hard work and wealth showed God’s approval and those that were poor were lazy and naturally a lower class. Social Darwinists believed that companies struggled for survival in the economic world and the government should not tamper with this natural process. The fittest business leaders would survive and would improve society. Belief that hard work and wealth showed God’s approval and those that were poor were lazy and naturally a lower class.

30 Survival of the fittest. 1. All living things have always competed for survival. Survival of the fittest. 2. All living things have evolved over millions of years as a result of genetic changes. 3. Some plants and animals developed traits that helped them survive. Survival of the fittest. 1. All living things have always competed for survival. Survival of the fittest. 2. All living things have evolved over millions of years as a result of genetic changes. 3. Some plants and animals developed traits that helped them survive. individuals compete 1. Every human activity individuals compete for success. 2. The unfit or incompetent lose and the strong or competent win. natural upper class 3. These winners make up a natural upper class. 4. Hard worked paid off, and lazy were inferior. individuals compete 1. Every human activity individuals compete for success. 2. The unfit or incompetent lose and the strong or competent win. natural upper class 3. These winners make up a natural upper class. 4. Hard worked paid off, and lazy were inferior. Social Darwinism 2 Social Darwinism

31 regulate These are the first laws to regulate industry and big business.  Congress passed Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC).  U.S. government regulated interstate trade within the country.  End railroad corruption of charging high prices to ship goods and Rockefeller’s illegal deals.  Rebates/kickbacks/drawbacks were illegal. trusts/monopolies  In 1890, Congress passed a law which made trusts/monopolies illegal or any business that prevented fair competition. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) To regulate means the US Government would make laws to oversee, adjust, fine tune and correct the unfair business tactics in industry and big business. Not take over or control it because that would violate laissez faire.


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