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Writing in APA Style Original presentation created by Laura Burrows, former Writing Center Consultant.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing in APA Style Original presentation created by Laura Burrows, former Writing Center Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing in APA Style Original presentation created by Laura Burrows, former Writing Center Consultant

2 About $30 MAJOR CHANGES new ethics guidance new journal article reporting standards simplified heading style updated guidelines for reducing bias new guidelines for reporting inferential statistics significantly revised table of statistical abbreviations new instruction on using supplemental files expanded content on the electronic presentation of data expanded discussion of electronic sources emphasizing the role of the digital object identifier (DOI) expanded discussion of the publication process

3 Page setup 1” on every side of the document Double-spaced; no extra spaces between paragraphs (new Word must be adjusted!) 12 pt font TWO spaces follow punctuation Style Avoid colloquial expressions Avoid the use of second person “you” Avoid biased language (see “General Guidelines for Reducing Bias,” APA Manual 6 th edition, p ) Mechanics Use active rather than passive voice Select tense carefully Be careful about subject-verb agreement See APA Manual 6 th edition Chapters 3 and 4 for APA preferred standards

4 Empirical Reports vs. Literature Reviews Literature Reviews:  A literature review follows APA citation style only  Most still use a cover page  Some professors may request an abstract  They will include a reference page * Indicates a new section/page and requires a level 1 heading.

5 Title PageAbstractBodyReferencesAppendicesFootnotesTablesFigure CaptionsFigures

6  Running head  Now included in the header  NOTE: This means that the Running head appears on EVERY PAGE OF THE PAPER!  Type “Running head”  a colon  then an abbreviated version of the title in all caps title in all caps  No more than 50 characters, spaces included  Title  Concise statement of main topic  Fully explanatory on its own  Author Name(s)  Omit titles (Dr., Professor) and degrees (PhD, EdD, MD, etc.)  Institutional Affiliation  If none, list city and state of residency  Author Note (if applicable)

7 American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

8 Empirical Study Abstract  Problem under investigation  Participants, specifying pertinent characteristics  Essentials of study method  Basic findings  Conclusions and implication or applications of study Literature Review Abstract  Problem/relation(s) under investigation  Study eligibility criteria  Type(s) of participants included in primary studies  Main results  Conclusions (including limitations)  Implications for theory, policy, and/or practice A good abstract should be accurate, non-evaluative, coherent and readable, and concise should describe… For more types of abstracts, see APA Manual 6 th edition, p. 27. American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

9 American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

10 American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

11 American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

12 American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

13 These have changed! Level One is Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase Level Two is Flush Left, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase Level Three is Indented, bold, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. The paragraph follows. Level Four is indented, bold, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. The paragraph follows. Level Five is indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. The paragraph follows. Good news! Now, you will follow the pattern of levels from the top down: if you have one level, use Level 1; if you have two levels, use Levels 1 and 2; and so on. American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

14 No more than 25 percent of your paper should be direct quotations. Paraphrase as much as you can. Use direct quotations when citing a statistic or original theory. Use an author's words if they capture a point exactly.

15 Plagiarism is…  …using someone else’s words or ideas as though they were your own.  …deliberately stealing someone’s work.  …paying someone to write a paper.  …a serious offense.

16 You DO need to cite:  When using someone else’s exact words  When using someone else’s data (statistics, etc.)  When using someone else’s figures (tables, graphs, images)  When stating someone’s unique idea You DON’T need to cite:  Your own unique ideas  Common knowledge

17 Don’t need to cite:  Ideas widely believed to be true.  Folklore, stories, songs, or saying without an author but commonly known.  Quotations widely known and used.  Information shared by most scholars in your discipline.  WHEN IN DOUBT…  CITE!

18 Surname (e.g., Smith) Exclude titles (PhD, M.D.) and suffixes (Jr., III) Author name Year only Publication Date For direct quotes only Page numbers APA Citations require the following…

19 Direct Quoting  Participants had demonstrated “words can be successfully ignored if the task conditions are right” (Strafford & Gurney, 2004, p. 977).  Stroop (1935) noted there commonly occurred a “sex difference in naming colors” (p. 21). Paraphrasing  Some studies have suggested reading may not be an automatic process (Strafford & Gurney, 2004).  Stroop (1935) examined potential factors for the different reaction times his participants exhibited.

20 One Author (Stroop, 1935) Two Authors (Strafford & Gurney, 2004) Three to five authors First citation: (Risko, Stolz, & Besner, 2005) Subsequent citations: (Risko et al., 2005) Six or more authors (Smith et al., 2004)* * In the references page, list up to seven authors Eight or more authors First six authors’ names, three ellipses, last author’s name Gilbert, McClernon, Rabinovich, Sugai, Plath, Asgaard,…Botros, (2004).

21 One author Stroop (1935) Two authors Strafford and Gurney (2004) Three to five authors First citation: Risko, Stolz, and Besner (2005) Subsequent citations: (Risko et al., 2005)* Six or more authors Smith et al. (2004)

22 When two works with three or more authors shorten to the same abbreviation, use enough authors to distinguish between them. (Smith, Jones, & Madson, 2004) and (Smith, Johnson, & Jones, 2004) Shorten to: (Smith, Jones, et al., 2004) and (Smith, Johnson, et al., 2004) DO NOT change the order of the authors! They must be represented as they are credited in the study. When two different works have the same author and the same year: (Smith, 2005a) and (Smith, 2005b) Works will be listed as they appear in the reference pages When two different authors have the same surname: (A. Smith, 2005) and (C. D. Smith, 1995) Even if the date of publication differs, distinguish between the two authors by including first initials

23 (Anderson & Jones, 2007, para. 5) If paragraph numbers are visible (numbered), use them in place of page numbers. (Anderson & Jones, 2008, Discussion section, para. 2) If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. (Anderson & Jones, 2008, “Common Symptoms,” para. 1) (Full heading is “Common Symptoms of Ailments Such as the Stomach Flu”) When headings are too unwieldy to cite in full, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks.

24  By the same author: Order by year of publication: (Skinner, 1966, 1981)  By multiple authors: Order as references appear in Reference* page: (Branch, 1980; Carlson, 2001; Todd & Morris, 2005) One author cited multiple times in one paragraph  If there is no possibility of confusion, only cite the year in the first citation*  Once a new paragraph begins, the study must be fully cited again * If one citation is more significant, it may be listed first, with a phrase such as “see also” inserted to separate the others: (Zimmerman, 1993; see also Branch, 1980; Smith, 2001)

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28  Required for quotes longer than 40 words  Inset by two tab spaces (or one inch) on both the right and the left.  Double-Spaced  When a quotation is indented in this way, quotation marks are not needed.  Usually, quotations longer than four lines require block quote formatting. (Author, date, p. #)

29 Reference lists should be alphabetized by the  Reference lists should be alphabetized by the last name of the first authors listed.  Remember, you can not change the order of authors within the study!  Nothing precedes something: Green, E. C. (2000). Greene, B. A. (1994). Harrison, M. R. (2004). Harrison, M. R., & Blake, C. D. (2001) NOTE: First Initials ARE used on the Reference page!

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31 Multiple works by the same author:One author: arrange chronologically Blake, B. R. (1990) Blake, B. R. (1993) One author, same year: order by title Blair, S. M. (2000a). Care and feeding… Blair, S. M. (2000b). Observations…

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33 Some journals begin each issue where the last left off:  Volume 1, issue 1: page  Volume 1, issue 2: page  These journals are paginated by volume, and do not require the issue number in the reference citations Paginated by issue Journals whose issues each begin on page one require the issue number in the reference page to specify the issue in which an article appears:  Volume 23, issue 1: page  Volume 23, issue 2: page  [An article listed in volume 23, page 189, would not tell a reader which issue contained the article]

34 When no DOI is included and the URL is given, a retrieved date is needed unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis)

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