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Legal requirements of Occupational Safety and Health Occupational Health EOH3202 Dr. Emilia Zainal Abidin Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty of.

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Presentation on theme: "Legal requirements of Occupational Safety and Health Occupational Health EOH3202 Dr. Emilia Zainal Abidin Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Legal requirements of Occupational Safety and Health Occupational Health EOH3202 Dr. Emilia Zainal Abidin Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University Putra of Malaysia 1

2 Human Right The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being As defined by WHO 2

3 3 Legal standing Act -General rules -endorsed by parliament Regulation -Details of act -endorsed by minister Industry Code of Practice -Any code, standard, rule, Specification related to OSH -approved by minister Guidelines -technical advisory document by national commission Detailed information No legal standing

4 4 Occupational safety – Boiler inspector in the 20 th century Early legislation – Machinery safety Factory & Machinery Act 1967 Employees’ SOCSO Act 1969 OSHA 1994 Chemical & safety awareness increased due to Bhopal 1984 & bright sparkler incidence 1991 Malaysia: Evolution of OH Law FMA Regulations 1.notifiable industrial disease 2.lead 3.asbestos 4.noise 5.mineral dust

5 OH related Law in Malaysia – under the Ministry of Human Resources Department of Occupational Safety and health Social Security Organisation Factory and Machinery Act or FMA and Regulations Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) 1994 and Regulations – could be downloaded at ol.%2011/Act%20514.pdf ol.%2011/Act%20514.pdf Employees’ Social Security Act

6 Factory and Machinery Act 1967 Prescriptive in nature and very specific Approach: traditional checklist and stressing on enforcement Coverage: manufacturing, construction, mining and quarrying work (23% workforce) Purpose: prevent occurrence of occupational accidents and disease at specified workplaces 6

7 FMA and Regulations – health related FMA 1967 Notifiable industrial diseases – in the 3 rd schedule Lead regulations 1984 Asbestos process regulations 1986 Noise exposure regulations – 1989 Mineral dust regulations

8 Area covered in FMA regulations Standard –Action level and Permissible Exposure Limit or PEL Control measures –Engineering, administrative and PPE Surveillance –Exposure monitoring – ambient and biological sampling –Medical examination – content, frequency, medical removal Others –Record keeping and penalty 8

9 Example 1: Lead regulation 1984 Medical surveillance –Baseline – exposed > action level –Yearly – blood level > 40 ug/ml –Content: work/medical history, blood pressure, neurological exam, investigation (blood lead, hb, haematocrit, renal profile) Medical removal protection –Blood lead > 80 ug or average 3 blood sampling > 75 ug –Women of child bearing capacity –Pregnancy and breast feeding 9

10 Example 2: Asbestos Process Regulation 1986 Surveillance: –exposure (personal) monitoring – at interval not longer than 3 months Medical exam: –frequency: pre employment, 2 yearly –content: history, physical exam, chest x-ray, lung function test –Medical removal: early state of asbestos induced disease 10

11 Example 3: Noise Exposure Regulation 1989 Standard: –Action level: 85 dB (A) –PEL Continuous >90 dB Intermittent at any one time – 115 dB Impulsive – 140 dB Control measures –Engineering and administrative –Training, warning signs –Hearing protection devices Exposure monitoring –Audiometric test Conducted by a competent person Standard technique Frequency: yearly, or 2 yearly 11

12 12 OSH Act 1994 Need for OSH Act OSH Act 1994, scope & concept 1 st schedule Objects of OSHAct Regulations Provisions of OSH General Duties of Employers and Self-Employed Persons General Duties of Designers, Manufacturers & Suppliers General Duties of Employees Liability for Offences Other provisions of OSH

13 13 The Need for OSH Act 1994 Enacted on the 25 th of Feb, 1994 on the basis of: Inadequacy of Factory & Machinery Act 1967 on factors pertaining to its: 1. Scope 2. Prescriptive on machinery sector 3. Dependency on government for regulatory processors Statistics on occupational accidents was high: saw the need to reduce rates of accidents arise

14 14 Act 514: OSH Act 1994 Provisions for: Securing the safety, health & welfare of persons at work Protecting others against risk to S&H due to activities at work To establish the National Council for OSH & other relevant matter Act is self-regulatory, based on principles of cooperation and consultation OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1994

15 15 Concept of OSHA 1994 RESPONSIBILITY – on the one who create the risk & work with the risk PLACE OF WORK – premises where persons work or use for storing CONTROL MEASURES – “as best as employer provide” Depends on severity, Cost & suitability

16 16 OSH Act 1994 Wider scope – covers all workers in all economy related activities (1 st schedule) excluding : Was estimated in 2002, 7 million of working citizens are protected under OSH 1994 (NIOSH 2002) those working on board ships governed by Merchant Shipping Ordinance 1952 Armed forces

17 17 First Schedule Manufacturing Transport, storage & communication Mining & quarrying Wholesale & retail trades Construction Hotels & restaurants Agriculture, forestry & fishing Finance, insurance, real estate & business service Utilities: Electricity, gas, water & sanitary service Public services & statutory authorities

18 18 Objects of OSHA Secure safety, health & welfare of workers 2.Protect other persons at place of work (visitor, etc.) 3.Promote occupational environment adapted to physiological & psychological need 4.Provide system that is flexible to cater rapid change

19 19 Act provides for Malaysian Minister to issue regulations to implement OSHA1994 more precisely REGULATIONS Policy Statements (Exception) 1995 CIMAH 1996 S&H Committee (>40 workers) 1996 CPL Hazardous Chemicals 1997 S&H Officer 1997 Prohibition of Use of Substance Order 1999 USECHH 2000 NADOOPOD 2004

20 Content of OSHA 1994 National Council for OSH Department of Occupational Safety and Health General duties of employers and self-employed General duties of designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers General duties of employees Safety and health committee at work Notification Enforcement and investigation 20

21 21 Under OSHA, the NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH was established Members consist of - 3 rep from employers organization - 3 rep from employees organization - 3 rep from government - 3 or > rep from professional bodies

22 22 Ensure safety, health and welfare at work - Section 15 Maintenance of Plant & system of work Ensure safety During operation, Handling, storage & transport Provide information Instruction, training & supervision Provide & maintain Safe outlet for entering & leaving Provide & maintain Safe working environment Duties of employer & self employed persons

23 23 Section 16, 17 & 18 1.Provide a safety policy (workers >5) 2.Ensuring other persons are not exposed to risk from activities at the work place 3.Disseminating information on aspects of work activities that could affect S&H of others Liable to fine of RM 50k or 2 years of imprisonment or both when contravene with section 15, 16, 17 or 18

24 24 “So Far As Is Practicable….” Severity of hazard or risks involved Current state of knowledge about the hazard or risk & means to control it Availability of suitable means to eliminate or reduce the hazard or risk Cost that is involved

25 25 Duties of Designers, Manufacturers & Suppliers – Section 20 1.Ensuring design & construction of plant is safe 2.Carry out tests for the above purpose 3.Disseminate information on the use of plant Penalty : RM 20k or 2 years of imprisonment or both

26 26 General Duties of Employees – Section 24 Take reasonable care for S&H of himself & other persons Co-operate with employer in regards to adhering to this act Wear provided PPEs Comply with instruction instituted by employer on OSH Penalty : RM 1k or 3 months imprisonment or both

27 27 Other Provisions of OSHA OSHA 1994 S&H Organization Notification of Accidents … Prohibition against Use of plant or substance Industry codes of practice Enforcement & investigation Liability for offences AppealsRegulations

28 “There are two kinds of people, those who do the work and those who take the credit. Try to be in the first group; there is a lot less competition there” -Indira Gandhi 28

29 Thank you! Questions? 29

30 Guidelines under OSHA 1994 Guidelines for Public Safety and Health at Construction Site 1994 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in the Office 1996 Guidelines on First-Aid Facilities in the Workplace 1996 Examination Syllabus for Engineer's Certificate of Competency (Steam and Internal Combustion Engines) Examination 1996 Guidelines on Method of Sampling and Analysis for Airborne Lead 1997 Guidelines for the Formulation of a Chemical Safety Datasheet 1997 Guidelines for the Classification of Hazardous Chemicals 1997 Guidelines for Labelling of Hazardous Chemicals 1997 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Tunnel Construction

31 Guidelines under OSHA 1994 Garispanduan Pendaftaran Tenaga Pengajar dan Pengendalian Kursus Induksi Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerja Sektor Binaan 2000 Guidelines for the Registration of Assessors, Hygiene Technician and Occupational Health Doctor 2000 Guidelines for the Preparation of a Chemical Register 2000 Guidelines on Trenching for Construction Safety 2000 Assessment of the Health Arising from Use of Hazardous Chemical in the Workplace (2nd Edition) 2000 Guidelines on the Control of Chemicals Hazardous to Health 2001 Guidelines on Medical Surveillance 2001 Garispanduan Penyediaan Dokumen Demonstrasi Operasi Selamat (Am)

32 Guidelines under OSHA 1994 cont. Garispanduan Penyediaan Dokumen Demonstrasi Operasi Selamat (Penstoran Gas Petroleum Cecair Di Dalam Selinder) 2001 Panduan Bagi Pencegahan Tekanan Dan Keganasan Di Tempat Kerja 2001 Guidelines on Monitoring of Airbone Contaminant For Chemicals Hazardous To Health 2002 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for Standing at Work 2002 Guidelines on Reproductive Health Policy & Programmes at the Workplace 2002 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Agriculture 2002 Guidelines on Occupational Vibration 2003 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for Seating at Work 2003 Garispanduan Untuk Memohon Sebagai Pusat Pengajar Pegawai Keselamatan dan Kesihatan

33 Guidelines under OSHA 1994 cont. Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health in Fishing and Aquaculture Operation 2003 Guidelines on Gender Issues in Occupational Safety and Health 2003 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health for Working with Video Display Unit (VDU’s) 2003 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health In Logging Operations 2004 Guidelines on Preventing and Responding to Drugs and Alcohol Problems In The Workplace 2004 Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health In Service Sector 2004 Guidelines on First-Aid in the Workplace (2nd Edition) 2004 Guidelines on Occupational Health Services


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