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Safety and health at work is everyone’s concern. It’s good for you. It’s good for business. Gender at work and varying forms of exposure Elke Schneider,

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Presentation on theme: "Safety and health at work is everyone’s concern. It’s good for you. It’s good for business. Gender at work and varying forms of exposure Elke Schneider,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety and health at work is everyone’s concern. It’s good for you. It’s good for business. Gender at work and varying forms of exposure Elke Schneider, Prevention and Research unit, EU-OSHA ETUI conference Women´s health and work, 5 th March 2015

2 2 This presentation  EU-OSHA – who we are and what we do  OSH and living conditions  Gender dimension of exposure  Health problems at work from a gender perspective  Age and work  Informal work  Positive changes and examples of good practice

3 3 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) A body of the EU Established in 1996 in Bilbao, Spain To promote a culture of risk prevention to improve working conditions in Europe, by providing technical, scientific and economic information to serve the needs of those involved in safety and health at work. Tripartite Board bringing together : -governments, employers’ and workers’ organisations -the European Commission

4 4 What we do  Research We identify and assess new and emerging risks at work −e.g. foresight, ESENER (EU survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks) We mainstream OSH into other policy areas: public health, research, environmental protection, transport, education, …  Prevention We collect good practice examples We develop hands-on instruments for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises to help them assess their workplace risks, share knowledge and good practices on OSH − OiRA (Online interactive risk assessment)  Partnership We work with and network governments, employers’ and workers’ organisations, EU bodies, networks, and private companies −e.g. our EU network of national Focal Points  Campaigning We organise major bi-annual EU “Healthy Workplace Campaigns”: −2012-2013: Working together for risk prevention −2014-2015: Healthy workplaces manage stress

5 5 EU-OSHA mainstreams gender into its research Dedicated web section Factsheets in 22 languages eFacts, reports, for female-dominated sectors, risks/health problems relevant to women Mainstreamed into all our activities (statistics, surveys, tools, good practice, sectors and occupations, research about vulnerable groups) Included in our campaigns  Carries out specific research to provide reports and tools ◊ Review 2003 on gender issues ◊ Risk assessment factsheets – gender and diversity ◊ Updated report on trends and issues 2014 ◊ Report on mainstreaming tools and policies 2015 ◊ Report on gender and age 2015

6 6 Gender issues in safety and health at work - EU-OSHA report 2003 Some Recommendations  Include gender in data collection  Ensure gender balance in research programmes  Fill gaps in research, e.g. standing work, menstrual disorders  Assess gender impact of policies, changes in the world of work etc.  Consider double-work load and promote work-life balance policies  Implement gender-neutral OSH regulations in a gender-sensitive way  For risk assessment, avoid assumptions, look at jobs women really do, involve women workers  Investigate and share good practices Available in: [Deutsch] [English] [Español] [Français] [Italiano] [Polski]

7 7 Women at work – updated research published 2013 focused on  Trends in employment (employment/unemployment/inactivity, occupations, sectors, age dimension, by Member state)  Risks, exposures & work-related accidents and health problems  Specific risks and health outcomes for women:  differences in type, causes & circumstances of accidents at work  violence at work  occupational cancer  Issues not or insufficiently addressed in other studies  combined exposures  female migrant population, profile (contracts, educational levels, jobs and sectors, health risks and outcomes),  women and informal work  domestic work  access to rehabilitation and disability issues from a gender OSH perspective

8 8 Mainstreaming gender into occupational safety and health practice Report covering examples:  integrating gender mainstreaming into organisations’ planning, administration and daily working practices;  developing methods and tools to promote gender mainstreaming;  facilitating working conditions that are suitable for both women and men, including both health and human resources management;  facilitating the reconciliation of work and family life and thereby promoting better work–life balance;  ensuring that equal opportunities exist, with women encouraged and supported in working in male- dominated professions;  designing and promoting adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) for women, and thereby reducing their having to make do with the ill-fitting and poorly structured equipment that is usually available to them;  conducting awareness-raising campaigns that focus on health.

9 9 Success factors for mainstreaming  Partnership: A success factor in quite a few of the cases described was working within partnerships, especially partnership between OSH and equalities personnel or organisations.  Steering committee: The establishment of a project steering committee or group will help in moving the project or policy forward.  Top-down, bottom-up approach: At the organisational level, the combination of a top-down, bottom-up approach assists in achieving the established aims, where a clear mandate from the top is combined with involvement at all levels, so that everyone comes to understand and feel ownership of the projects.  Creation and use of tools: to move the process forward.  Addressing concerns of men and women: Methods and tools developed to address the concerns and issues of the female employees in the organisation were found to be relevant for the problems encountered by the male employees as well.  External requirements to address gender and diversity: Drivers of actions included both European Union recommendations and strategy as well as national regulation and Ministerial directions.

10 10 Recent trends  Women still work mainly in services, segregation continues  Increases in part-time work and mini-jobs, multiple employment  Increases in employment and activity highest for women aged 55-64  Older women work more in education, health and social work and public administration, younger women more in HORECA and retail  Female workforce ageing in some sectors – manufacturing, agriculture, health care, education  Increase in informal work, home/domestic services, difficult access for authorities  Exposure to violence increasing  Musculoskeletal disorders and mental health problems increasing  Women´s access to rehabilitation and back-to-work limited  Less access to consultation, worker representatives  Younger and older, migrant women and those in personal services particularly vulnerable  Monitoring (accidents & health problems) does still not consider women enough, e.g. typical accidents in education/health care not considered in statistical analysis  Huge differences between Member states  Little gender-specific information on impact of changes (e.g. technology)

11 11 Combined risks - a major issue for women at work Risk factors, conditionsOutcomes Exposure to biological & chemical agents Working in service sectors Working at clients premises Jobs not covered by OSH legislation Multiple roles Lack of information and training Low control, autonomy and support Prolonged standing and sitting Static postures Monotonous and repetitive work Moving loads repetitively and moving people Client and patient contact Infectious diseases Skin disorders, asthma Stress and mental health problems Different accidents: slips, trips and falls, violence-related, needlestick injuries, cuts and sprains Fatigue and cognitive disorders Musculoskeletal disorders

12 12 Gaps in practice - Rehabilitation and disability Findings and recommendations  Women with disabilities - at risk of double or triple discrimination.  Accommodations for women basic or not existent.  Rehabilitation schemes do not account for women’s needs, e.g. childcare needs during rehabilitation.  Employers to be encouraged to have flexible and effective rehabilitation/ back-to-work policies, addressing female workers, temporary workers and part-timers, often women, young or migrant workers.  Pension systems and compensation not adapted. An example from MS:  In Sweden, disability pensions are more favourable to men. Women denied pension when able to do housework, equates to a higher level of well-being, although men are not assessed on this criterion.  More research for women on vocational retraining, rehabilitation and re-insertion into work needed.  Rehabilitation and back-to-work policies to address women´s distribution of MSDs and the higher prevalence of mental health disorders.  Women's work-related health problems leading to longer workplace absences and critical for reintegration.

13 13 Gender issues  Exposures underestimated and awareness low  Occupational diseases reflect male industry jobs  Men and women work in different sectors, and within one sector, in different jobs  Risk assessment of exposure to dangerous substances needs to be targeted to women  Personal protective equipment to be designed for women  Identify combined exposures typical for female jobs  Accidents data not available for major sectors  How to ensure OSH for female workers in multiple jobs (e.g. cleaning, home care) and informal work

14 14 Differences between Member states with impact on OSH  Employment rates of older women highest in northern Europe with > 55%, lowest in Southern European countries with all < 35%  Part-time work less common for men and women in new Member states. In the most extreme case, the Netherlands, over 75% of female workers worked part-time in 2008.  Different situation as regards segregation. In the eastern new MS, more women in technical and associate professions, possibly influencing gender pay gap and employment trends. Higher proportion of women and men in informal work in new and southern MS.  The size of the gender pay gap by economic activities strongly differs among Member States  Differences as regards recognition of MSDs and stress-related disorders and as regards occupational accidents and commuting accidents  Different policies regarding integration of immigrant women and their access to education, training and the labour market

15 15 OSH implications of employment trends Employment trend  Women more and more concentrated in part-time and casual jobs, particularly in the retail trade and consumer services sector; impacts on their salaries and their career perspectives  Informal work and jobs in home care and as cleaners on the increase, especially for migrant women  Move towards mini-jobs, not covered by labour law  Women continue to trail men in terms of career advancement and in levels of compensation and gaining higher status OSH implications  Stress & related health problems, fatigue and cognitive health problems  Repetitive strain injuries caused by repetitive and monotonous work  Low job control and autonomy, feelings of low self-esteem, low motivation, and job dissatisfaction for women  OSH difficult to organise for women who work at their clients premises, how to enforce, how to assess risks, how to ensure labour protection  Less access to (OSH) training, consultation, less representation in decision-making that may influence their working conditions

16 16 Female employment, by sector 60% of all employed women in 6 out of 62 sectors:  health care & social services,  retail,  education,  public administration,  business activities  hotels and restaurants

17 17 Women highly represented in informal employment, characterised by poor working conditions and a lack of protection  Different definitions across countries  Informal sector, informal economy, subcontracting?  Women concentrated in ‘invisible’ areas (domestic labour, piece-rate homework, assistance in small family enterprises)  Informal female employment 5-40%, difficult to measure  Special Eurobarometer (Riedmann & Fischer, 2007) : first attempt to measure undeclared work EU wide:  > 1/3 (38%) are women, except in ES and FR, where the relation is almost 1:1, and IT where women dominate.  Young people, aged 15-24, in Continental Europe and Nordic countries, less in most Central and Eastern European countries  Unemployed, self-employed and students over-represented.  Household services most significant undeclared activity (19%), incl. cleaning services, care for children or the elderly. Personal services such as hairdressing mentioned by 9% of respondents  Ongoing research on undeclared work and exploitation by FRA, just presented at EU-OSHA

18 18 Women and informal work – typical sectors SectorVulnerable groups Occupations Health and safety risksSpecific issues AgricultureFamily workers Undeclared workers Young people and children Temperature and climatic conditions Pesticides Accident risks, incl. from vehicles and machinery Strenuous work Seasonal work Irregular working time RetailStreet retail trade and markets Gift shops Street vendors Temperature, climatic conditions Ergonomic risks “Envelope” wages ManufacturingPieced home work Garment and shoemaking Tailoring Accident risks Poor equipment Chemical and biological risks Irregular piece work Casual work Hotels and restaurants Catering Kitchen workers Cleaners Unskilled workers MSDs Noise Chemical and biological risks Burns and cuts Seasonal work Night work Irregular working times “Envelope” wages Personal services Hairdressing Cleaning Tailoring Accounting, data processing Biological and chemical Poorly equipped Casual work False self-employment Low wages Home and elderly care Cleaning Child care Elderly care Biological and chemical MSDs, heavy lifting Lack of ergonomic equipment and protective hygiene measures Irregular working time Working at clients´ premises Lone work Lack of facilities Mental load

19 19 Characteristics of informal work for women Vulnerable groups Occupations Health & safety risks Specific issuesWider issues Family workers Undeclared workers Young people Migrant workers Repetitive & monotonous work Physically strenuous work Gendered violence Lack of access to facilities Mental load Accidents & diseases not recorded and compensated Lone work Lack of access to healthcare/ preventive OSH services Lacking access to preventive services Lack of training No access to consultation No representation Lack of basic rights (holidays, insurance, unemployment benefits) Hard & busy schedules Inadequate rest Working conditions depend on the relationship with the employer Lack of pension rights No work contracts or temporary contracts Higher poverty risks Lack of conciliation with family obligations Poor career prospects No social or economic recognition Overqualification Low wages “Envelope” wages No access to formal jobs Social exclusion Ongoing research on undeclared work and exploitation by FRA, just presented at EU-OSHA

20 20 Migrant women work mainly in services Women NationalsForeign citizensThird-country nationals Activities of households as employers 11518 Human health and social work activities 1713 Accommodation and food service activities 413 Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 151213 Manufacturing12109 Administrative and support service activities 4910 Education1254 Other service activities344 Professional, scientific and technical activities 543 Financial and insurance activities 422 Top 10 principal sectors of employment of nationals and foreign citizens aged 25–54, women Source: Eurostat, LFS 2008

21 21 Migrant women and informal work To be taken into account in employment policies, educational and retraining schemes and health and safety considerations  Immigrant women workers not a homogenous group - Distinguish between first, second or third generation, EU nationals or from third countries.  Huge differences between the Member states. National policies determine whether they are integrated and have access to training, education and social benefits.  Family commitments and lack of access to rehabilitation or compensation particularly relevant to migrant women.  Young female workers likely engage in temporary contracts in low-skilled service jobs, and therefore at high accident and injury risk.  Pregnant immigrant workers a particularly vulnerable group. Enforcement of health and safety legislation needs to be ensured for them.  Overqualification and underemployment particularly relevant. Immigrant female workers may be highly, but inadequately, trained and prone to accept unfavourable working conditions because of their lack of opportunities. This may also lead to higher stress levels, discouragement and depression.  Training and information to female immigrant workers who work shifts, part time or on temporary contracts (e.g. seasonal workers in the hotel and catering sectors, or nightshift workers in healthcare, as well as subcontracted home care services delivered to private homes).  Information on safety and health practices needed in different languages. In services as much as in male-dominated sectors such as construction or manufacturing.  Policy measures for legalising employment for immigrants or delivering service vouchers, for example for cleaning or home care services, should include OSH considerations.  Include clients in the target groups for awareness-raising and enforcement.

22 22 OSH implications of living conditions Living conditions  Women spend more time in unpaid activities: childcare and care for dependent relatives, housework  Women often juggle multiple roles – be mothers, partners and carers as well as doing paid work and running a household  Disparity in pay between women and men still exists. Women overrepresented in low income, low status jobs (often part-time), and more likely to live in poverty  Poverty, working mainly in the home on housework and concerns about personal safety can make women particularly isolated OSH implications  Intensive caring can affect emotional health, physical health, social activities and finances  Stress – particularly when jobs involve shift work, irregular working times, Saturday/Sunday and evening work  Fatigue and cognitive problems  Accidents related to fatigue and bad working conditions  Musculoskeletal disorders  Multiple risk factors, not always easy to discriminate work-related risks  Accepting precarious and worse conditions at work

23 23 Care for children or family still main reason for non - or part-time employment In Europe, employment gap between mothers with very young children (< 3 yrs)) with children in school age (6 -11 yrs) is on average 26 points for those aged 15 - 24, and 10 points for those aged 25 - 54

24 24 Caring for relatives, not only childcare  UK : 11% rise in the number of carers since 2001 - increasing by over 620,000 to 6.5 million in just 10 years, about one-third are men. caring round the clock, for 50 h or more each week, are rising faster - an increase of 25% in the last ten years Consequences: loss in income, physical and mental load, loss of employment  A UK survey among SMEs showed that 25% had either dealt with a worker affected by cancer or with a worker with care duties due to a cancer case  By 2050, Nr. of people over 85 will increase more than fivefold and Europe, having the oldest population will see a rapid increase in the demand for care.  BE: 164,789 jobs were created between 2004 and 2011 in the domestic services sector; in France, 300,000 jobs have been created in the same sector since 2005  Good practices: In Canada, there is a statutory right to compassionate care leave. Employees can take up to eight weeks unpaid leave to care for a gravely ill family member. The Carer's Leave Act 2001 in the Republic of Ireland enables employees to leave their employment to provide temporary full-time care and attention to a family member, a partner, friend or colleague.  Sources: Carers UK, 2014 report, facts and figures; IES, SME survey; NICA, final report

25 25 OSH implications of segregation into sectors Employment trend  Women still work mainly in services, while men work mainly in construction, utilities, transport and manufacturing  Increases in activity highest for women aged 55-64  Older women work more in education, health and social work and public administration  Employment in manufacturing decreasing  Female workforce is ageing in some sectors – manufacturing, agriculture  Women highly represented in informal work, home and domestic services OSH implications  Different risks for men and women – prolonged sitting and standing, static work significant for women  More client contact – more harassment and violence  Different risks for different age groups – prevention should be tailored  Occupational accident rates stagnating in some sectors, not recorded for education, health care and sectors with high rates of informal work, e.g. agriculture  Older women exposed to heavy work  Less access to training for older women, less access to consultation, representation and preventive services in the informal sector

26 26 Gender segregation by age OSH implications need to be further investigated older women more in health social work and education, younger women more in retail and HORECA Employment in agriculture is decreasing Female workforce in manufacturing, education and health & social work is ageing Source: Eurostat LFS

27 27 Are female jobs light jobs? Secondary analysis of the German workers survey found that Health care workers carry more than construction workers  2 in 3 have to carry heavy loads (compared to 1 in 2 for construction workers)  93,8% have to do their work standing  36% have to work in unfavourable postures (kneeling, bending, squatting, etc.)  71% have to do more than one task at a time  More than ¾ (76%) work shifts  More than half work nights (51%)  Almost all work Saturdays, Sundays and holidays (94%, 91,5%)  57% men and 64 % women have back pain  66 % women and 54% men have pain in neck and shoulders  37% of the women have pain in the legs  > 40% suffer from high emotional load (compared to 11 % on average)  More than 1 in 4 feel that they hardly cope (27 vs 16.6 %)  Twice as many as on average have sleeping problems (37% vs. 19%) (Germany,BAuA survey, published Nov.2007)

28 28 Shift (Night) Work: Forecasted Attributable Cancers (1)Current employment levels maintained, 30% <5, 40% 5- 14, 30% 15+ years night shift work (2)Linear employment trends to 2021-30 (3)50%<5, 30% 5-14, 20% 15+ years night shift work (4)70%<5, 20% 5-14, 10% 15+ (5)90%<5, 10% 5-14, 0% 15+ (6)100% <5 years Shift work reduction – a measure to reduce cancer burden? EU-OSHA Cancer seminar Sep. 2012 UK burden of disease data (Rushton, L.)

29 29 EU example – integrating gender into age management Austrian labour inspection campaign on age management at work Ageing - female health care workers Finding that training and chances of promotion end at the age of 45; high work rates, work organisation or working hours and the structure of the work environment continues to be tailored to younger people. Projection of the age structure – health and social service - blue-collar workers Source: Austrian labour inspection service ZAI 300 enterprises (15/ regional labour inspectorate) selected for interventions Advice to employers employers to assess the age structure of their workforce attempt a projection of expected changes have a plan for addressing existing and future health problems folders, tools and brochures developed jointly, practical to SMEs

30 30 Occupational accidents – gender differences  Causes and circumstances different due to employment in different sectors and occupations Slips, trips and falls Accidents due to violence  Indications that some types of accidents more frequent in women working rotating shifts, e.g. health care – influence of living conditions?  Accidents in some female-dominated sectors on the rise in some countries (HORECA – young workers!)  Some female-dominated sectors (education, health care, public service) not or insufficiently addressed  Informal work and mini-jobs – accidents not assessed/recorded

31 31 Women at work - Accident rates generally decreasing, but trends very different for women and men, depending on sector  Health care and education previously not included in top accident sectors!  Informal work – not considered in accident statistics  Many more women work part-time – adjust for working time  Commuting accidents important for women  While accident rates are decreasing for men with age, they are not for women! Standardised incidence rate of accidents at work by economic activity, severity and sex (per 100 000 workers), EU-15, 1995-2006, ESAW, Eurostat Men Women

32 32 Women at work - Accident rates generally decreasing, but trends very different for women and men, depending on sector  New NACE coding for industrial sectors reflects better sectors where accident rates high for female workers  Accident rates for women relevant in service sectors (transport, HORECA, waste management, health and social work) and administrative jobs, and in manufacturing and agriculture

33 33 Transport accidents – by gender A much higher injury risk for women Commercial traffic is riskier than general traffic Commuting more dangerous than business routes Modal choice strongly relevant-for example highest risk for motorcycles, pedestrians, cyclists, and emergency services Women are at higher risk of injury Risk decreases with age Depends on times of day, seasons relevant

34 34 Women’s exposure to dangerous substances remains largely unexplored SubstanceSourceCircumstancesOccupation, task Pesticides & storage chemicals Foodstuff Storage Plants Animals Agriculture and farming Horticulture Workers who handle goods from containers and in storage areas Farmers & agricultural workers Gardeners Retail Cleaners Exhaust fumes Diesel exhaust and particles Exhaust from combustion engine, incl. diesel and other engines on trucks, ships, trains and buses Unintentional contact when loading and unloading Maintenance Refuelling Parking areas of vehicles Maintenance workers Retail workers Drivers, delivery and cargo workers Workers on mission Transport workers Emergency workers

35 35 Women’s exposure to dangerous substances remains largely unexplored SubstanceSourceCircumstancesOccupation, task Solvents Cleaning products Fuels Ambient air Paints, inks, glues and varnishes Cosmetics Resins and glues Drugs Cleaning Dry-cleaning of textiles Printing Laboratory work Handling medication Fabrication of dental and optometric devices Manufacturing Leather industry Textile industry Cleaners and dry-cleaners Hairdressers Service workers on ships, trains, buses Printing Laboratory work, pharmacists, chemists Biological and infectious agents Animals Foodstuffs, perishable goods Insects and other vectors Contact with passengers, patients, clients Cleaning Contact with foodstuffs Contact with infected clients and goods Contact with animals Cuts and stings Contact with infectious agents when travelling abroad Farmers and agricultural workers Cleaners Service and maintenance workers Healthcare staff Hairdressers Catering staff Teachers and nursery school workers Retail workers Home care

36 36 EU-OSHA publications highlighting chemical and biological risks to women Combined exposures! ! Monitoring of cancer risk factors and work-related cancer: exposures to women overlooked, part-time women excluded from some studies  Noise in figures – OSH in figures report – highlights exposures in food and textile manufacturing, education, health care and other service professions  Combined exposures to noise and ototoxic substances – literature review  Transport sector – OSH in figures report – highlights overlooked exposures to women in general, in particular women in service tasks (restauration, cleaning)  Factsheets on respiratory and skin sensitisers, highlight exposures to biological agents in service sectors, health care, etc.  Reports on cleaners – highlight exposures to precarious workers and lack of training and information  Report on HORECA and efacts on Dangerous substances in HORECA – highlights multiple exposures and lack of information  Legionella and legionnaires’ disease: European policies and good practices, Report and Factsheet 100

37 37 Women at work – younger women Employment trend  Unemployment gap betw. young men and women has clearly diminished, in some countries unemployment of young men has even become slightly higher.  Younger women work more in retail and HORECA  Younger women work more in low- qualified jobs and on temporary contracts  Gender pay gap already at the start of career  Employment gap particularly high for mothers aged 15 - 24 with very young and with children in school age OSH implications  Different risks and trends for different age groups – prevention should be tailored  Lack of experience and training of young women  Younger women exposed to sexual harassment  High exposure to violence, due to client contact  Occupational accidents even increasing in some countries in female-dominated sectors, such as HORECA  Less access to consulation, preventive services, representation at enterprise level  Young mothers a particularly vulnerable group

38 38 We see progress in how gender is included in practice and policy  Workplace practices  Participative ergonomic research methods, Research programmes  Guides and campaigns tackling risks in women’s jobs or risks  Interventions incorporating gender  Gender mainstreaming activities by national authorities  National OSH strategies  looking at real jobs, involving workers  specifically including women’s jobs, sectors where women work

39 39 EU example - integrating gender in the work of labour inspection Austrian labour inspection Gender Mainstreaming Policy  Improved compliance – benefits women and men  Inspectors responsibility to set the right climate. How can they influence: the workplace level – broader prevention level  Integrated into national OSH strategy – gender budgeting  Austrian Inspectorate gender mainstreaming project Mainstream gender into the working lives of inspectors- helps to raise awareness Mainstream gender into daily work of inspectors Guidelines for inspectors – always speak to both men and women – checklists, does my advice cover both women and men? will my advice benefit men and women? Training for inspectors Gender focus in guides for cleaners, investigation on female musicians, gender mainstreamed into actions for ageing workers The labour inspection staff act.... considering the different situation of women and men in a working enviroment and.. regarding to the fact, that OSH measures should be gender-sensitive Presentation available at

40 40

41 41 Gender mainstreaming Developing risk assessment tools  Mainstreaming, gender-sensitivity means: ensuring both women and men are included in all h&s activities and doing a ‘gender- check’  EU-OSHA factsheet 43 provides a basic approach: Avoid assumptions of who is at risk Include women’s jobs and consult them Look at real work situations Match jobs, equipment to real people Include work-life balance Incorporate into a holistic approach  Examples of practical tools and their application needsharing

42 42 Recommendations from new EU-OSHA research  Trends in the world of work (move from industry to services, increasing mobility, use of new technologies, intensification and increasing precarisation of work) to be assessed for their specific effect on women and their OSH. Adapt research, prevention and monitoring tools.  Develop policies for non-standard working conditions, for example if an inspector or a safety professional needs to inspect workplaces of weekend, night or part-time workers  Holistic approach needed, taking into account possibilities to take influence on the conditions, autonomy at work and double load family/work  Ensure access to preventive services. Adapt occupational health provision.  Ensure women´s access to consultation and worker representation  Organisations should explore ways to give female workers more control over their work processes.  Accidents and work-related health problems: more focus on female jobs (agriculture, health care, education, public service, personal sevices)  Assess multiple exposures and combined risks for female jobs, e.g. multiple chemical exposures for cleaners, or ergonomic exposures. Summary available at

43 43 Recommendations from new EU-OSHA research  Explore differences between Member states policies. Identify the success factors for an effective integration of women in the labour market, taking account of their OSH situation.  Build on the good practice examples from the Member states  Build on results of research for women (e.g. working conditions as cause of cancer), and on the accident preventive attitude of women  Women are a diverse labour force. Needs of different age groups may be different. A more targeted approach to research and prevention is needed.  Adress needs of young female workers, and young mothers  How to ensure the OSH of women who work in personal services, at the premises/homes of their employers?  How to ensure the OSH of women who work for several employers?  Ensure that part-time workers and workers on temporary contracts are covered by risk assessment, prevention measures and OSH training. Consult them on their working conditions, risks they feel exposed to and the prevention measures.  Explore how to adapt workplaces for an ageing working population in some sectors, e.g. health care, manufacturing, agriculture Summary available at

44 44 BBLICAZIONI/Tutti_i_titoli/Pari_opportunita/Donne_al_lavoro/Donne_al_lavoro_-_Sommario/info-753369618.jsp Look at the real jobs women do!

45 45 Thank you for your attention

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