Why OSHA -10 Reference: 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership by John Maxwell
History of OSHA Why the need for oversight – 1970 13,870 More workers died each year than the population of Alexandria and Glenwood Minnesota. – 2.2 million could not work due to injuries Paris, France boasts a population of 2.2 million Houston, Texas boast a population of roughly 2 million Toronto, Canada boast a population of 2.7 million – 2010 - 4,690 worksite fatalities – Is awareness working?
OSHA Standards OSHA -1910 General Industry OSHA -1926 Construction OSHA -1915, 1917, 1918 Maritime OSHA -1928 Agriculture Which standard governs our industry?
Who is Not Covered by OSHA Self employed Family farm – Outside hired help is covered by OSHA – Family members only Mine workers – Covered by MSHA A few isolated transportation segments Atomic energy workers – Covered by other Federal Agencies Reference: OSHA 10 General Industry Training Slides Alexandria Technical College
Minnesota Specifics Must develop an AWAIR program. – Workplace accident and injury reduction Employee Right To Know – Must have an annual refresher training (OSHA requires initial training) Employer paid PPE’s – Federal final rules also require employer paid PPE’s Safety Committees – All firms with more than 25 employees must have a safety committee
Minnesota Specifics (cont) Recordkeeping – Requires all employers to use OSHA 300 logs Confined Spaces – Adopted the use of permitting for all Minnesota workers Lockout / Tagout – MN has its own Lockout/Tagout procedures for construction industry. Reference: http://www.dli.mn.gov/OSHA/FedState.asp
Employee Rights Right to a safe and healthful workspace – Examples: machine guarding, noise levels, hazardous chemical protection Right to know about Hazardous Chemicals – Examples: written program, container labeling, MSDS Right to information about injuries and illnesses – Examples: OSHA 301, 300 &300a – Retain records for 5 years Reference: OSHA 10 General Industry Training Slides Alexandria Technical College
Employee Rights (cont) Right to complain or request hazard correction – Without fear of discharge or discrimination Right to receive training on a variety of H&S subjects – Examples: ERTK, LOTO, PPE’s, Confined Spaces Right to file a complaint with OSHA Right to examine exposure and medical records Reference: Ibid
Employee Rights (cont) Right to participate in an OSHA inspection – Talk with the OSHA inspector privately – Request inspection results – Object to correction dates Right to be free from retaliation Employee responsibilities – Follow all safety rules, health rules – Wear all required PPE’s Reference: Ibid
Employer Responsibilities Utilize “best practices” while maintaining the health and safety of all workers Provide engineered controls – What is an engineered control? Provide administrative controls – What is an administrative control? Provide PPE’s Comply with OSHA’s General Duty Clause – This clause covers issues not specifically addressed in 29 CFR 1910. Example: Ergonomics
Employer Responsibilities Provide training – ERTK, Fire extinguisher use, LOTO, Bloodborne Pathogens and so on. Keep records of injuries and illnesses – Report worker deaths within 8hrs – Report occurrences where 3 or more workers are hospitalized – Train workers how & where to report injuries – Make records available to OSHA and employees – Post OSHA 300 log Reference: Ibid
Employer Responsibilities (cont) Provide medical exams when required Post OSHA citation(s) and corrective actions Provide and pay for PPE’s – Example: Safety glasses, hard hats, hearing protection, etc. – There are some exceptions: Slip Resistant Footwear is not covered under 1910 (I)
4 reasons you may have an OSHA inspection – Imminent Danger Probably cause – a known danger exists Example: driving by a worksite without fall protection – Fatality/Catastrophe Significant injury reported to OSHA – Complaints Employee complaints/Employee representative complaint – Program inspection Companies with significantly high injury or illness rates Reference: Ibid
Surviving an OSHA inspection Opening meeting: – Presentation of Credentials – if they don’t show them ask for them – Explanation of why/how OSHA chose this facility – Obtain company hazard documentation – Explanation of the procedures, scope, and purpose of the visit
Surviving an OSHA Inspection (cont) Worksite inspection – If they write a note, you write a note – If they take a picture you take a picture – Ask a maintenance worker to accompany you and fix things during inspection – They may interview employees – They may monitor air, noise, and other substantial hazards – Be polite! You are a professional and they are professionals
Surviving an OSHA Inspection (cont) Closing meeting – Discuss violations and correction deadlines – Employers rights and responsibilities Citations – Citations are mailed – Citations fall into 4 categories Willful, Fines up to 70K Serious, Fines up to 7K Non Serious, Fines up to 7K Repeat offender, Fines up to 70K – Citations can be negotiated Example: An item found to be out of compliance but repaired on site by a maintenance staff member at the time of inspection could be negotiated for a smaller fine. Reference: Ibid
Top 10 Most Frequently Cited Standards. Scaffolding - Construction Fall Protection - Construction HazCom (ERTK) - General Industry Respiratory Protection - General Industry Lockout/Tagout - General Industry Electrical wiring and components - General Industry Lift Equipment - General Industry Ladders - Construction Electrical Systems Design - General Industry Machines - General Industry Reference: OSHA.gov
Employee Protection 1910 (I) Three ways to protect the employee – Engineered controls Example: a furniture factory with a significant amount dust in the air: – Ventilation – Dust collection system – Air filtration system – Administrative controls Example: a building maintenance firm whose employees routinely set 300 chairs and put down 300 chairs. – Job rotation – Training
PPE’s Last line of defense Employers must establish a PPE program that includes – Set up procedure for selecting PPE’s – Assess work site hazards – Establish a training program When to use PPE’s How to properly use the PPE’s Limitations Proper care and maintenance
Types of PPE’s Eye protection – Face shields, goggles, safety glasses, welding helmets, eye wash stations Respiratory protection – Respirator Head protection – Hard hat, bump hats Hearing protection – Ear muffs, canal caps, ear plugs
Types of PPE’s (cont) Footwear – Metatarsal guards, steel toe, safety shoe, rubber boots Hand protection – Kevlar, nitril, viton, butyl, mesh gloves Body protection – Cooling vest, sleeves and apron, coveralls, full body suit
Scenarios Maintenance worker servicing an air handler – What type of engineered controls should be in place? – What type of administrative controls should be in place? – What type of PPE’s are needed?
Scenarios (cont.) Maintenance worker stripping a floor – What type of engineered controls should be in place? – What type of administrative controls should be in place? – What type of PPE’s are needed?
Scenarios (cont.) Maintenance worker adding chemicals to a steam boiler – What type of engineered controls should be in place? – What type of administrative controls should be in place? – What type of PPE’s are needed?
Scenarios (cont.) Maintenance worker entering a confined space – What type of engineered controls should be in place? – What type of administrative controls should be in place? – What type of PPE’s are needed?
HAZ Com (ERTK) 1910.1200 Chemical exposure can cause – Heart ailments, central nervous system damage, kidney and lung damage, sterility, cancer, burns, and rashes. Chemicals also have the ability to cause – Fires, explosions, and other accidents Employers must provide – Written program – Container labeling – SDS (Safety Data Sheets) – Training Reference: Ibid
Safety Data Sheets All SDS will contain a user friendly 16 section format As of June 2015 all labels will contain a pictogram, a signal work, hazard and precautionary statements, product identifier, and supplier identification What does this mean for managers: – All employees must be trained to read new labels and SDS sheets, by December 1, 2013. – All labeling and SDS communication must be updated by June 2016. – A great exercise for your staff is to copy numerous SDS sheets and have them find various items. Examples: Specific gravity, PH, PPE’s, manufacturer, health hazards, emergency response For more information about chemicals and chemical safety, log on to Dashirmanagement.com and click on the managers tab.
Ergonomics Covered under the general duties clause 63% of muscle related injuries are due to repetitive motion. – What types of repetitive jobs do your employees perform everyday? Common issues: – Carpal tunnel, low back pain, eye strain, tendinitis, trigger finger, De Quervains disease, carpet layers knee, herniated disk, hand arm vibration syndrome Reference: Ibid
Controlling Ergonomics Hazards Investigate – What type of worksite hazards exist Develop/Implement a plan – Install engineered/administrative controls – Develop safe work practices – Reduce exposure Provide PPE’s when needed Encourage – Stretching – Neutral position – Limit jerking and awkward movements
Machine Guarding 1910(O) Top Three Machine Guarding Hazards – Point of Operation Drill press bit Table saw blade – Rotating parts Belts and pulleys Cranks and gears – Other moving parts Sliding Conveyor Thinking about this list: What types of machines do we work with which could pose a hazard to our employees?
Safe Guarding There are 14 classifications of safe guards – Fixed guard Provides a permanent barrier. Example: cover on a belt and pulley – Interlocked guard – Adjustable guards Guards that adjust to allow various types of work to be done. Example: Band saw or scroll saw guard. Reference: Ibid
Safe Guarding (cont.) – Self Adjusting guard Adjusts with the size of stock entering the machine. Example: Table saw – Pullback Device – Restraint Device – Tripwire cables – Two handed controls Requires constant concurrent pressure to start the machine Reference: Ibid
Electrical 1910(S) Discussion: – What types of accidents can occur while working with electricity? – What can we do to safeguard our employees against electrical accidents? For more information about electrical safety or LOTO see Manager’s tab on Dashir’s website.
Combustion, Flammability & Fire Safety, Emergency Preparedness 1910 (E, L, ) Terms: – Flashpoint: the temperature at which a liquid will ignite. – Combustible liquids: liquids which ignite at or above 100 degrees – Flammable liquids: liquids which ignite at or below 99 degrees What are some examples of flammable liquids? Reference: Ibid
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Control the source of ignition – Example: No smoking near flammable or combustible liquids – Other concerns: Static electricity (bonding – provide for ground), welding, open flames – Provide proper ventilation Utilize proper storage procedures – Proper storage containers and/or cabinets – For more information consult with your local department of public safety. Reference: Ibid
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Transfer of flammable or combustible liquids – An approved storage container must have__________ to meet OSHA requirements? A spring closing lid and spout cover Safety device to relieve pressure in case of fire Flame arrestor A UL Listing Not more than 5 gallons of fuel Reference: Ibid
Fire Control/Prevention Have a written plan – Detail known hazards, such as chemicals, fuel storage and so on – Train plan stake holders in their duties Explain to employees: exit routes, and gathering points, have well illuminated and unobstructed exit point Good housekeeping – Control accumulation of flammable and combustible waste Reference: Ibid
Fire Extinguishers Five types of extinguishers: – Class A, ordinary combustibles: wood, cloth, paper. – Class B, flammable liquids, gas or grease: gasoline, propane, solvents – Class C, energized electrical equipment: wiring, controls, appliances – Class D, combustible metals: magnesium, lithium, titanium – Class K, cooking media: vegetable or animal oils, fat
Fire Extinguisher Classifications http://njfireequip.com/site/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/fire-classes.gif
Further Study OSHA Publications: – http://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/publication.html http://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/publication.html Dashir Management Publications – Dashirmanagement.com – Click on the managers tab to view Health and Safety slide shows.