Presentation on theme: "Designed and used with safety in mind"— Presentation transcript:
1 Designed and used with safety in mind Ladders and StairsDesigned and used with safety in mindThis presentation covers something all of us are familiar with: ladders and stairs
2 Introduction Section I Just because people use ladders and stairs all the time is no reason to believe equipment is always safe.
3 Ladders & Stairs Hazards Rules Inspection Safe use Maintenance StairwaysLadders and stairs present many hazards. Because of the variety available it is important to understand some terms when discussing ladders and stairs. In general, ladders are either “portable” or “fixed”. There are different standards set for design, construction and use requirements for ladders and stairs in most workplaces. All ladders should be inspected before each use, and employees should follow safety precautions whenever they use a ladder. It is especially important to remove defective ladders from use!
4 Section IIHazardsSince ladders and stairs can cause serious injuries, or even death, it is important to identify the hazards associated with their use.
5 Hazards of ladders Falls Slips Overreaching Weather The main hazard involved with ladder use is falls. A fall can be the result when a ladder fails due to overloading or damage. Employees can fall if they slip or loose their balance while climbing on the ladder. Employees also risk a fall if they reach too far while working on top of a ladder. Weather can be a factor when ladders are used outside.
6 Hazards of ladders Oil or grease Not secured Electrocution Falling objectsOil or grease on a ladder can also contribute to a fall. Ladders that are not set securely can shift, causing the person on the ladder to fall. Ladders that are not set securely can shift, causing the person on the ladder to fall. Ladders that are not protected from traffic can be accidentally hit at the base to cause a fall.Another hazard results when ladders come into contact with electricity. Metal ladders are conductive and are not to be used near exposed energized parts.Objects that fall from ladders are a hazard to anyone who is working below the ladder. Employees who are working on ladders must keep tools and other items secure to protect the people below them. The area around the top of the ladder should be kept clear to help objects from being dropped.
7 Hazards of stairs Clutter Slippery surfaces Damage Falls on stairways result when employee slip or trip. Clutter, slippery surfaces and or damage! (What’s wrong with this picture?)
8 Hazards of stairs Poor lighting Unsafe practices Poor lighting and unsafe work practices can contribute to stairway fall hazards.
9 OSHA/State of Montana rules for most workplaces Section IIIOSHA/State of Montana rules for most workplacesThere are OSHA standards for most workplaces. The City of Helena falls under the State of Montana Department of Safety. These standards do not specifically require training, but they do require proper ladder use and maintenance. Employees who use ladders should have training to help meet the standard’s requirements.
10 Different kinds of ladders Portable wood –Portable metal –Fixed –OSHA’s general standard on portable wood ladders (29 CFR ) applies to the construction, care, and use of the common types of portable wood ladders. Other types of special ladders, fruitpicker’s ladders, combination step and extension ladders, stockroom step ladders, aisle-way step ladders, shelf ladders, and library ladders are not specifically covered. The OSHA standard on portable metal ladders (29 CFR ) has general requirements for ladder design, use, and care. OSHA’s standard on fixed ladders (29 CFR ) outlines design requirements for loading, construction features, clearance, safety devices, pitch, and maintenance requirements. These standards do not specifically require training, but they do require proper ladder use and maintenance. Employees who use ladders should have training to help meet the standard’s requirements
11 OSHA terms Ladder Single Extension Some of the terms used in the rules include:Ladder – An appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross-pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in by either ascending or descending.Single ladder – A non-self supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of but one section. It’s size is designated by the overall length of the rail.Extension ladder – A non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length, consists of two or more sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Its size is designated by the sum of the lengths of the sections measured along the side rails.
12 OSHA terms Stepladder Type 1 – Industrial Type 2 – Commercial Type 3 - HouseholdStepladder – a self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, having steps and a hinged back. It’s size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front end of the side rails.Type I – Industrial stepladder – 3 to 20 feet for heavy duty, such as utilities, contractors, and industrial use.Type II – Commercial stepladder – 3 to 12 feet for medium duty, such as painting offices, and light industrial use.Type III – Household stepladder – 3 to 6 feet for light duty, such as light house use.
13 OSHA terms Fixed Individual-rung Rail Grab bars Pitch Then there is the fixed ladder – A ladder permanently attached to a structure, building, or to equipment.Individual-rung ladder – A fixed ladder of which each rung is individually attached to a structure, building, or equipment.Rail ladder – a fixed ladder consisting of side rails joined at regular intervals to rungs or cleats and fastened in full length or in sections to a building, structure or equipment.Grab bars – Individual handholds placed adjacent to or as an extension above ladders for the purpose of providing access beyond the limits of the ladder.Pitch – The included angle between the horizontal and the (fixed) ladder.
14 OSHA terms Cage Well Ladder safety device Cage – a guard that may be referred to as a cage or basket guard which is an enclosure that is fastened to the side rails of the fixed ladder or to the structureWell – a permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of the well. Proper clearances for a well will give the person who must climb the ladder the same protection as a cage.Ladder safety device – any device, other than a cage or well, designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of accidental falls and which may incorporate such features as life belts, friction brakes and sliding attachments.
15 Design - Portable Materials Length Rung / step spacing Side rail width The following are some of the design requirements for portable ladders used in the workplaces.Materials used in the construction – wood ladders must be free from sharp edges and splinters. The wood must be free of separations (shake or check), missing at any corners (wane), compression failures, or decay. Metal ladders must meet strength requirements and be corrosion-resistant. Portable metal ladders are designed as one-man working ladders based on a 200-pound load.Length restrictions – stepladders may not be longer than 20 feet. Single ladders may not be longer than 30 feet. Two-section wood extension ladders may not be longer than 60 feet, and the side rails of one section must fit within the side rails of the other section so the upper section can be raised and lowered. Two-section metal ladders may not be longer than 48 feet. Sectional metal ladders with more than two sections may not be longer than 60 feet. There are additional length restrictions for special purpose ladders.Spacing between rungs/steps – wood stepladders must have uniform spacing of not more than 12 inches between steps. Rungs or steps on portable metal ladders must be on a 12-inch centers.Wideth between side rails – Wood stepladders must have at least 11 ½ inchews between the side rails at the top of the ladder, and, from top to bottom, the side rails must spread at least 1 inch for every foot of the ladder’s height. Metal straight and extension ladders must have at least 12 inches between the side rails
16 OSHA design - Portable Non-skid Extension ladder overlap Stepladder spreadersNon-skid – There must be non-skid rungs on metal ladders. All wood rung ladders and metal stepladders must have non-slip bases or bottoms.Limits on overlap of sections on extension ladders – on two-section wood extension ladders and on multi-section metal ladders, the sections must overlap at lest 3 feet for ladders that are up to and including 36 feet long. The overlap must be 4 feet for ladders over 36 feet and up to and including 48 feet. When ladders are over 48 feet and up to 60 feet, the overlap must be 5 feet. Metal extension ladders must have positive stops for these overlaps.Stepladder spreaders or locking devices – Stepladders must have a metal spreader or locking devise to hold the ladder open. Type III wood ladders can combine the pail shelf and the spreader in one unit.
17 OSHA design - Fixed Materials Load limits Rungs and cleats Rung / step spacingThe following are some oft eh design requirements for fixed ladders.Materials used in the construction – Metal ladders must resist corrosion. Welding must follow the “Code for Welding in Building Construction”. All wood parts of fixed ladders must meet the requirements on portable ladders and must be treated to prevent decay when necessary.Load limitations – fixed ladders and their fastenings must meet the minimum design requirements to support a live load of a single concentrated load of 200 pounds. Additional live-load units of 200 pounds each must be considered in the design based on anticipated usage of the ladder.Rungs and cleats – metal ladders must have rungs with a minimum diameter of at least ¾ inch. Wood ladders must have rungs with a minimum diameter of 1 1/8 inches.Spacing between rungs/steps – the spacing between rungs, cleats, and steps must not exceed 12 inches.
18 OSHA design - Fixed Rung / step length Clearance Cages / wells PlatformsLadder safety devicesLength of rungs/steps – the minimum clear length of rungs or cleats must be 16 inches. The rungs of an individual-rung ladder must be designed so that the foot cannot slide off of the end. Side rails must have an adequate gripping surface without sharp edges, splinters, or burrs, if they are used to aid in climbing.Clearance around the ladder – There must be at least 36 inches of clearance between the climbing side of the ladder and the nearest permanent object when the ladder is pitched at 76 degrees. When the pitch is 90 degrees, the minimum clearance is 30 inches. There must be adequate clearance to the sides of the ladder (at least 15 inches measured from the ladder’s centerline when cages or wells are not necessary. There must be at least 7 inches of clearance behind the ladder.Use of cages, wells, landing platforms, or ladder safety devices – cages or wells are to be provided on ladders of more than 20 feet to a maximum unbroken length of 30 feet. When ladders are used to ascend to heights exceeding 20 feet (except on chimneys), landing platforms must be provided for each 30 feet of height (or fraction thereof), except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety device is provided, landing platforms shall be provided for each 20 feet of height (or fraction thereof). Landing platforms must have standard railings and toe boards. Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank, and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in lieu of cage protection, and no landing platform is required in these cases. All ladder safety devices such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments shall meet the design requirements of the ladders which they serve.
19 OSHA design - Fixed Grab bars Step-across distance Pitch Grab bars – spacing to horizontal grab bars must be a continuation of the rung spacing. Vertical grab bars must have the same spacing as the ladder side rails. The grab bar’s diameter must match the diameter of the round rungs.Step-across distance to the landing – The step-across distance between the edge of the ladder and the equipment or structure must be a minimum of 2 ½ inches and no more than 12 inches.Pitch, or angle, of the ladder – The preferred pitch of fixed ladders is in the range of 75 degrees to 90 degrees with the horizontal. Ladders with substandard pitch (between 60 and 75 degrees) are permitted only where necessary to meet installation conditions, and this is to be avoided, if possible. Fixed ladders may not have a pitch in excess of 90 degrees with the horizontal.
20 OSHA construction rules Section IVOSHA construction rulesThe construction industry uses plenty of ladders, and OSHA makes sure they have plenty of regulations, too.
21 Part 1926 Subpart X Construction rules The construction regulations (Subpart X of 29 CFR 1926) apply to all ladders used in construction, alteration, repair (including painting and decorating), and demolition at worksites covered by OSHA’s construction standards. These Subpart X regulations do not apply to ladders that are specifically manufactured for scaffold access and egress, but any general purpose ladders which are also used with scaffolds are covered by these Subpart X rules. The rules detail ladder and stairway construction, care, and use.The construction regulations include requirements for training and retraining. Employees who use ladders and stairs for construction work must receive training by a competent person.In construction, a stairway or ladder is required at access points having a break in elevation of 19 inches or more when there is no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or personnel hoist provided. Either a double-cleated ladder or two or more separate ladders must be used when the ladder must serve two-way traffic (or when 25 or more employees must use the same ladder for access or exit from a work area). At least one point of access to the work area must be kept clear for employee use.
22 Construction terms Portable ladder Fixed ladder Individual-rung/step laddersJob-made ladderSome of the terms used:Portable ladder – A ladder that can be readily moved or carried.Fixed ladder – A ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure.Individual-run/step ladders – fixed ladders without a side rail or center rail support. Such ladders are made by mounting individual steps or rungs directly to the side or wall of the structure.Job-made ladder – a ladder that is fabricated by employees, typically at the construction site, and is not commercially manufactured. This definition does not apply to any individual rung/step ladders.
23 Construction terms Single-cleat ladder Double cleat ladder Step stool Single-cleat ladder – a ladder consisting of a pair of side rails, connected together by cleats, rungs, or steps.Double-cleat ladder – a ladder similar in construction to a single-cleat ladder, but with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending.Step stool (ladder type) A self-supporting, foldable, portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, 32 inches or less in overall size, with flat steps and without a pail shelf, designed to be climbed on the ladder top cap as well as all steps. The side rails may continue above the top cap.
24 Construction design - Portable MaterialsLengthRung / step spacingSide rail widthThe following are some of the design requirements for portable ladders in construction.Materials used in the construction – the surface of ladder components must not cause punctures or lacerations, and must not snag clothing. Wood ladders may not have opaque coverings except for identification or warning labels on one face of a side rail. Side rails made of spliced material must be equivalent in strength to a one-piece side rail made of the same material.Length restrictions – ladders may not be tied or fastened together to provide longer sections unless they are specifically designed for this use.Spacing between rungs/steps – The spacing between rungs, cleats, and steps must be at least 10 inches and no more than 12 inches, as measured form the center liens of the rungs/cleats/steps. For step stools, the distance between steps must be at least 8 inches and no more than 12 inches.Width between side rails – The minimum clear distance between side rails for all portable ladders is 11 ½ inches.
25 Construction design - Portable Non-skidStepladder spreadersLoad-carrying capacitiesNon-skid – There must be non-skid rungs on metal ladders.Stepladder spreaders or locking devices – stepladders must have a metal spreader or locking devise to hold the ladder open.Load-carrying capacities – portable ladders must be able to support at least four times the maximum intended load. Extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders must support at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load. Ladders built to meet the ANSI standards that are referenced in the regulation meet these requirements.
26 Construction design - Fixed Load limitsSide railsNon-skidClearanceThe following are some of the design requirements for fixed ladders used in construction.Load limitations – fixed ladders must be able to support at least two loads of 250 pounds each, concentrated between any two consecutive attachments, plus anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging, and impact loads resulting from the sue of ladder safety devices. Each step or rung must be able to support a single concentrated load of at least 250 pounds applied to the middle of the step or rung. Ladders built to meet the ANSI standards that are referenced in the regulation meet these requirements.Side rails – Side rails must extend 42 inches above the top of the access level or landing platform.Non-skid – Rungs and steps on fixed metal ladders manufactured after 3/15/91 must be skid-resistant.Clearance around the ladder – there must be at least 30 inches of clearance between the climbing side of the ladder and any obstruction. This clearance can be reduced to 24 inches when unavoidable obstructs are encountered and a deflection device is installed to guide employees around the obstruction. There must be adequate clearance to the sides of the ladder (at least 15 inches measured from the ladder’s centerline) when cages or wells are not necessary. There must be at least 7 inches of clearance behind the ladder.
27 Construction design - Fixed Grab barsStep-across distancePitch or angle of the ladderGrab bars – grab bars that extend at least 42 inches above the access level or landing platform are used with individual-rung-step ladders. Spacing to horizontal grab bars must be a continuation of the rung spacing. Vertical grab bars must have the same spacing as the rungs’ vertical legs.Step=across distance of the landing – for through fixed ladders, the step-across distance between the ladder’s steps or rungs and the edge of the landing must be a minimum of 7 inches and no more than 12 inches. (A through fixed ladder requires the person getting off at the top to step between the side rails fo the ladder to reach the landing.)Pitch or angel of the ladder – The pitch can be no greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal, as measured to the back side of the ladder.
28 Construction design - Fixed Use of cages / wellsLadder safety devicesSelf-retracting lifelinesUse of cages, wells, ladder safety devices, or self-retracting lifelines – Fixed ladders will be provided with cages, wells, ladder safety devices, or self-retracting lifelines where the length of climb is less than 24 feet but the top of the ladder is at a distance greater than 24 feet above lower levels. Where the total length of a climb equals or exceeds 24 feet, fixed ladders will be equipped with either ladder safety devices, self-retracting lifelines and rest platforms at intervals not more than 150 feet, or a cage or well and offset multiple ladder sections with landing platforms at least every 50 feet.Ladder safety devices and related support systems for fixed ladders used in construction must be capable of withstanding without failure a drop test consisting of an 18 inch drop of a 500 pound weight.The safety device must be activated within 2 feet after a fall occurs and must limit the descending velocity of an employee to 7 feet/sec. Or less. The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body belt or harness must not exceed 9 inches.Employees must be able to use the devices without continually having to hold, push, or pull any part of the device, leaving both hands free for climbing.
29 Section VInspectionWith all the effort that goes into designing a ladder to make it safe be sure to follow-up and inspect the ladder.
30 Inspection Frequent Portable metal - tips over Construction – competent personPortable wood ladders are to be inspected frequently. A portable metal ladder must be inspected immediately if it tips over, and it must be maintained in good useable condition at all times. Fixed ladders must be inspected frequently, with the intervals between inspections dependent on use and exposure.Any ladders used in construction must be inspected for visible defects by a competent person. The inspections are to be done on a periodic basis and after any occurrence that could affect the ladder’s safe use.
31 Inspection Rungs / steps Side rails Corrosion Tight fit Grease / oil Follow the manufacturer’s inspection guidelines. In general, inspect ladders for: broken or missing rungs or steps, broken or split side rails, corrosion, a tight fit between steps and side rails, rungs that are free of grease or oil
32 Inspection Splinters Fittings Moving parts Fraying No splinters or sharp points, secure hardware and fittings, moveable parts that operate freely without binding or excessive play, proper lubrication on wheels or pulleys, and any frayed or badly worn rope on extension ladders.
33 Section VISafe useEmployees should follow these general precautions for safe ladder use whenever they use a ladder – even a small stepladder.
34 Safe use Inspect before use Length and load limits No metal by electrical linesInspect the ladder for defects before you use it.Select a ladder with adequate length and load limitsDo not use metal ladders near electrical lines!!!
35 Safe use Intended purpose Firm, solid surface Secured / barricaded Use the ladder for its intended purpose.Don’t use a ladder as a brace, skid, lever, guy or gin pole, gangway, platform, scaffold, plank, material hoist, or for any other use for which it was not intended. Don’t tie ladders together to make them longer. Don’t use a stepladder as a straight ladder.Set up the ladder on a firm, solid surface. Don’t place a ladder on boxes or blocks to make it taller. Don’t set up a ladder on a scaffold to gain extra height. Don’t set up a ladder on a slippery or icy surface.Ladders used in doorways, passageways, driveways, or other areas where they could be displaced by activities or traffic need to be secured or barricaded to keep disturbances away. Where a door could open into a ladder, either block the door open, keep the door locked, or have someone guard the base of the ladder.
36 Safe use Clear area Stepladders locked open 4-to-1 rule Keep the area around the top and bottom of the ladder clear.Open stepladders fully and lock the spreaders to keep the ladder stable.Set up straight ladders using the 4 to 1 rule. The distance from the wall to the base of the ladder should be one-fourth the distance from the base of the ladder to where it touches the wall. The rails must be supported equally at the top. The top of the ladder should extend at least 3 feet above the support point. Set up extension ladders so the upper section overlaps and rests on the bottom section – always overlap the upper section on the climbing side and lock the rungs in place.
37 Safe use Face the ladder Both hands Only one person Face the ladder when ascending or descending!Use both hands to grip the side rails whenever possible. Always use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when climbing, and don’t carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance.Only one person is allowed on a ladder at a time.
38 Safe use Top 2 steps of a stepladder Top 4 rungs of a straight ladder Do not move occupied ladderDon’t stand on the top 2 steps of a stepladder. Don’t climb the back sections of step ladders.Don’t stand on the top 4 rungs of a straight ladder.Never move a portable ladder while someone is on it.
39 Safe use Hoist material Work within side rails Proper storage Hoist tools or other materials up to you after you have reached the top of the ladder. Wear a tool belt to help you manage tools while you are working on a ladder.Work within the side rails. If your belt buckle goes past the side rail, you are leaning too far. Descend and move the ladder as needed to stay close to your work.Store ladders in designated areas on racks or hooks. Ladders should be secured so that they will not be knocked over.
40 Maintenance Section VII Good ladder maintenance ensures ladders stay safe to use.
41 Maintenance Remove from service Tag “Do Not Use” Ladders with structural defects, corrosion, or other defective parts must be immediately removed from service and tagged with a statement such as “Do Not Use”. A fixed ladder can be blocked with material that spans several rungs in order to remove it from use. IF YOU ARE NOT GOING TO FIX THIS LADDER THEN TOSS IT – Don’t let it just stand around and don’t Duct Tape the rungs together!!!!
42 Maintenance Repair to original design Qualified personnel Repairs to ladders used in construction must restore the ladder to meet its original design criteria before it can be returned to use. In all cases, repairs must not be improvised – qualified maintenance personnel or the manufacturer should take care of repairs.
43 Section VIIIStairwaysStairs are another source of injury
44 Fixed industrial stairs – 1910.24 General OSHA ruleFixed industrial stairs –OSHA has a standard on fixed industrial stairs (29 CFR ) that covers design and construction specifications of stairs found in most workplaces. The rule does not include any training requirements.
45 Construction rule Stairways – 1926.1052 OSHA’s construction industry rules for stairways (29 CFR ) address construction, care and use.The construction regulations include requirements for training and retraining. Employees who use stairs for construction work must receive training by a competent person.
46 Stairways Slippery conditions Clean up spills Snow and ice Workers should follow these general precautions to avoid injuries on stairs. Eliminate any slipper conditions on stairways. Clean up any spills on stairs. When Stairs are outside, keep them free of snow and ice.
47 Stairways No clutter Proper lighting Use handrails Stairways should be kept free of any clutter and have proper lighting.Stairs are required to have a handrail. Using the handrail helps you keep your balance and can prevent a fall.Make sure you can see over any materials that you are carrying on a stairway. If you can’t see the stairs, you are more likely to fall.Reporting unsafe conditions promptly, including damaged stair treads, railings or handrails.
48 Stairways Always walk — don’t run Carrying materials Report unsafe conditions
49 Conclusion Section VII We have learned that using ladders and stairs properly involves some effort.
50 Summary Hazards Rules Inspection Safe use Maintenance Stairways Employees need to watch and control hazards. Workers should have a basic understanding of OSHA/State of Montana rules, the terms used to describe ladders and stairs, and the design considerations that go into manufacturing a ladder. Ladder inspections are an important part of avoiding injury, as are general precautions for safe ladder use. Defective ladders must be removed from service. Stairways are not hazard-free either, and similar requirements and precautions for safe use apply to stairs as well.