2The OSHA website is www.osha.gov. OSHA Regulations for the Auto Service IndustryIn 1971 the government formed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to help and force employers AND employees to prevent "on the job" injuries and work-related illnesses.The OSHA website is
3Topics Eye Injuries Hand Injuries Fires Slips and Falls Back Injuries Lifts and JacksPower ToolsRespirators and Air QualityWelding EquipmentAuto AccidentsBlood Borne PathogensWorkplace AngerHazardous Chemicals
65 ways that an automotive repair worker can get an eye injury
71 - Falling DebrisWhen a car is on a lift or a person slides under a car to work, they are looking up at the car.Once debris is in the eye, the technician tries to wash it out with an eye wash machine or floods the eye with water at a sink, but the tiny piece may have cut the eye slightly or remains stuck in the eye, so it's off to the emergency room.
82 - Flying DebrisA technician using a bench grinder, a high speed drill, rotary tool, or wire brush can have a piece of debris fly or ricochet into the eye.Usually it's not a bad injury and it could have been prevented 99% of the time by wearing safety glasses, but it's off to the hospital again if proper eye protection is not used.
93 - During Engine Inspection You lean over an operating motor to check something and the air being pulled through the radiator loosens a tiny particle in the engine compartment or a tiny piece of fan belt chooses exactly that moment to dislodge.Your eye seems to be a magnet for debris, and you are on your way again to the emergency room.
104 - Battery ExplosionHydrogen gases build up in the common car battery and old batteries can get cracks in the case or around the posts.When you use jumper cables on a car battery, sparks can fly at the post. Any amount of hydrogen escaping will ignite immediately.The tops of many batteries have blown upward right into the face of a technician.Always use glasses when you are leaning over the battery. Battery acid can be very damaging to your eyes
115 - Electric Welding ArcThe light generated during the arc welding process is made up of mostly Ultra-violet light energy.Even very short exposure to this light can result in serious eye injury.These injuries are few and far between, but no one should look at a welder arc without eye protection.This is like looking into the sun.
12Safety GlassesHave a set of approved protective eyewear that is specifically yours...don't share with someone else!Make sure the eyewear is correct for the type of work you are doing and fits youKeep the eyewear nearby at all timesNotify your supervisor if you lose or break your eyewear. Get a new pair immediately...and don't work in the meantime without them!Most important - Wear your eye protection! It doesn't do any good if it is sitting in your toolbox or on a workbench.
13$4,000 per InjuryA smart employee wears eye protection whether the manager says so or not, because the average eye injury costs nearly $4,000 including time off and medical bills.Although most treatments at the emergency room allow the employee to return to work the same day, remember that there are severe injuries that do end in blindness.
15Hand InjuriesHand injuries are the second most frequent injury in the automotive repair industry, and account for the largest number of lost days by the industry. Twenty percent (20%) of the lost day injuries are related to fingers, hands, and wrists.
16Types of Hand injuries Broken hands from slipping wrenches Cuts from sharp sheet metal, cotter pins, etc.Pinches from pliers, metal parts fitting togetherDoors and hoods being slammedBurns from hot motors and exhausts
17GlovesHand injury is preventable most of the time by using "Personal Protective Equipment." In this case, it's a fancy way to say "gloves".The government has found that many injuries would never happen if a person put on equipment proven to protect them.By wearing the correct protective equipment, cuts, scrapes, and burns can all be avoided.
18Hand Related Injuries Cuts Lacerations Abrasions Punctures Chemical burnsThermal burns
19Common tasks that expose hands to injury Handling sheet metal (old and new)Glass handlingGrinding with power toolsWorking with screwdrivers, punches, ice picks or cotter key pullersDislodging frozen nuts and boltsWeldingWorking on hot engines or exhausts
20Long-Term ProblemsLong-term problems can be worse than the instant pain of a cut that sends you to the emergency room for stitches.Putting your hands into chemicals that can be absorbed through your skin is a hazard you can't see as it happens.
21Skin AbsorptionEvery day you work around chemicals that can come in contact with your hands (skin, eyes, clothes, etc).Some of these chemicals are KNOWN to cause illnesses in some people after certain amounts of exposure.
22Nitrile GlovesThere are gloves such as the new nitrile gloves much like those that medical surgeons wear that offer excellent protection.Wear the right type of protective gloves and the chemicals won't come in contact with your hands!
23Skin ExposureYour hands are the primary body parts that come into contact with chemicals, but not the only place.If the warning labels on MSDS (more on this later) information says the chemical is hazardous, then don't let it come in contact with your skin OR your clothes.If it does, change uniforms and wash it off.
24Risks and the gloves to protect against them Common Risk AreaRisk TypeType of GloveHot metal, engine, exhaustImmediate InjuryLeather/Heavy CottonSharp Metal, Sheet metalGlass HandlingLeather/Heavy Cotton Adhesive "sticky" bulletsWeldingLeather/Cotton Flame ResistantNew Oil or AntifreezeVariesNone or Nitrile/LatexUsed Oil or AntifreezeLong termNitrile or LatexDegreasing SolventsNitrileThinners/Paint SolventsBlood
26Fire Hazards Degreasing and cleaning solvents Stored paints and solventsSprayed paintsGlueOxygen/AcetyleneGasoline in "caddy"Gasoline in the carsOilGasoline in on-sight storage tanks
27MSDSContainers and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be marked and clearly identify the risk and flammability of any material on the premises.
28Minute by MinuteFires can get out of control quickly and do a tremendous amount of damage to property and lives.Fire prevention is not reserved for a monthly or weekly meeting.Fire prevention is a minute to minute awareness by everyone that works in the shop.
29Fire Extinguisher Rating An automotive repair shop should have fire extinguishers that are rated to cover the following three (3) fire ratings:Class A - Water ExtinguisherClass B - CO2 ExtinguisherClass C- Dry Chemical Extinguisher
30Fire Extinguisher usage Class A - Wood and paperClass B - Flammable fluidsClass C - ElectricalThere are single extinguishers available that are rated for all three classes. It's best to have this type of extinguisher at each location.
31Fire extinguishers should be: Close by...no more than 50 feet awayEasy to get to and in every work area (no doors or walls between)Inspected monthlyThe gauge should read full or be "in the green"The safety pin should be in placeThe seal should not be broken
32Fire extinguishers should be: [cont.] Mounted with easy to read and approved "Fire Extinguisher" signageMounted in proper manner and within reachQuick releaseBetween 36 inches and 60 inches off the floorNever left loose on a bench or on the floor
33Using a Fire Extinguisher Pull the pinStand about eight feet from the fireAim the hose at the base of the fireSqueeze the trigger and spray back and forthA fire extinguisher generally only lasts 3 to 20 seconds, so you have to make sure you aim properly.
34Good HabitsHelp management know if a fire extinguisher is out of date or has low pressure.Make it a habit to reach over when you walk by and check the tag and gauge.
36In Case of FireIn case of a fire, there is a logical sequence to follow.Many people become rattled though and comment later, "It happened so fast."The number one thing to remember about a fire is:Stay Calm and Tell People When There Is A Fire!!!
37In Case of FireAlways yell, "FIRE," and make sure that others in the area hear you before you run for the fire extinguisher.If the fire extinguisher handles the problem, great; but if it doesn't, then... everyone should leave the area safely... and someone can...call the fire department !!!!
38Keep Aisles and Exits Unobstructed It is also important to keep aisles and exits free of obstructions.If a fire does occur, you must be able to get to the marked exits quickly, without falling over boxes and machinery.
39Assembly AreaYou should have an agreed upon assembly area if a major fire breaks out where you can quickly identify if anyone is missing or possibly trapped in the building.The first thing the fire department will ask is: 'Is everyone accounted for.' Be prepared to give them precise information. The building can be replaced, people cannot.
41Slips and FallsFour areas where people can fall and hurt themselves are:Slick floorsCluttered floorsStairsLadders
42Slick FloorsKeep the floor from getting slick. Anytime oil or fluids are spilled on the floor, immediately clean them up, using the right drying methodKeep clutter out of the way. Hoses, floor jacks, parts, boxes and tools, should have a place to be stored when they aren't being usedMark a slippery area with an easy to use tent sign that says "Caution Slippery Floor"Have the proper absorbents in an easy to find place to quickly put on spills
44Cluttered FloorsClutter that ends up in the aisles or in the middle of the floors are accidents waiting to happen.Leaving a floor jack or a bucket in the aisle, even for "just a second," is an easy way to trip up a co-worker or yourself.
46StairsIf there are more than a few stairs, they need to have a handrail and you should use it.If there are not handrails, be careful and point out to the management anything you feel is unsafe.
47LaddersThe work area for repairing cars might not seem to be a place that ladders are frequently used, but it really is.Windows are washedLights need to be cleaned or changedPaint booth filters need to be changedTrucks need serviceThe tops of vans need to be sanded for refinishParts may be stored on high shelves
48Ladder SafetyNever get on a ladder without checking the weight restrictions.Some ladders are only rated for up to 250 pounds.Never stand on the top step of a ladder.Make sure the ladder's legs are rock solid.Avoid placing the ladder too far from or too close to the wall itself. It's easy to get hurt on a ladder, so be careful.If in doubt, get a second opinion and/or have someone "spot" for you and steady the ladder while you use it.
49OpeningsAn opening where there is a drop of more than 4 feet requires a guardrail to be installed.Some shops have different levels.Parts rooms, older garages with alignment pits, and garages built on steep inclines are examples where handrails and protection from falls are needed.If you think there is a risk of accident from an unprotected area, make your supervisor aware of it.
50A Quick SolutionOne of the easiest and quickest ways to prevent the most common slip and fall accidents is to pay attention.If you notice clutter in the aisles, a slick spot, someone having trouble with a ladder, or something else that is likely to cause an injury, take a moment and fix the problem.Clean up the spill. Pick up the bucket. Hold the ladder for your co-worker. You'll be doing the company and your co-workers a favor!
52Back InjuriesOver 66% of Americans will experience back pain during their lives.Back pain can prevent a person from working and cost the person income and the business productivity.
53Common Work-Related Back Injuries Pinched nervesPulled muscles
545 Ways You can Hurt Your Back Lifting too muchNot getting help to lift or move something heavy or awkwardBending over too far and lifting with the back instead of squatting and lifting with the legsLifting while off balanceTwisting with a load
55Avoiding Injury On the Job Do not bend at the waist and lift with your back.
56Avoiding Injury On the Job Bend at the knees and lift with your legs.
57Let Your Legs Do the Lifting. Stand close to the load with both feet firmly on the floor, about shoulder width apart. Point your toes out.Squat down close to the load with your back straight, knees bent, and stomach muscles tight.Grip the load firmly with both hands, not just the fingers.Lift and stand up slowly, keeping your back straight and letting your legs do the lifting.
58Don’t TwistCaution: If you have to change direction while you're carrying a load, don't twist.Twisting is a major cause of back injuries. To change direction, move your feet.
59Unload CorrectlyLower the load slowly, bending your knees so your legs do the work.Keep your back straight.Position your hands so the fingers don't get caught under the load.Place the load on the edge of the surface and slide it back.
60Use Tools to Protect Your Back In today's professional shops we have lifts, slings, dollies, two wheelers and all kinds of tools to help lift and carry heavy objects.Also, don't be afraid to ask someone else for help!
61Use Leverage Carefully When using leverage on a wrench or pry bar, be sure you are firmly planted and test that the load is locked down.
62Reducing back injuries Get help when lifting heavy materialsUse a lifting tool, sling, dolly, etc.Lift properly
64Full Car LiftsOver the last century hundreds of people have died or been severely injured from improperly lifting or securing cars during repair.The first line of defense is to be trained on the lifting equipment you are preparing to use.
65Information on the Lift or Rack Most equipment has the basic safety recommendations and weight ratings posted in writing on the equipment.If the labeling is not legible or has become dirty over time, most manufacturers are happy to provide new labels at no cost.More and more lift providers have safety information on specific tools and equipment at their website as well.
66Lift Safety PlacardRead instructions before using a lift
67Hydraulic Floor Jacks Should never be used beyond weight limits Should be checked frequently (following manufacturer's directions) for adequate hydraulic fluidShould never be used if they have an obvious leakShould never be used if they allow loads to slip downShould always be used with jack stands
68The #1 Amateur MistakeThe number one mistake of amateur or entry-level technicians and do-it-yourselfers is getting underneath a raised vehicle held up by a floor jack without first putting a jack stand(s) underneath..
69Use only Professional Grade Jack Stands Some water pipes do not have the same strengths as the special steels that rated jack stands and supports doBe careful of using non-approved or makeshift jack stands such as unrated concrete or cinder blocks, pipes or home welded alternatives.Cinder blocks and concrete blocks easily shatter even under light loads
70Never, never, never get under a car without a jack stand or safe secondary support!
71Ask If You Don't Know Where to Place the Jack! Whichever jack you use for lifting the car in your shop, make sure you know where to place it on the vehicle for your safety and the protection of the vehicle.New technicians, apprentices and entry level workers don't realize how vulnerable a car is to misuse from a jack.
72Areas you should not try to lift are: Steering armsFloor pansCrankshaft pulleysDriveshafts
73Jacking PointsEach car has specific and safe jacking points.Do not place a lift if you are not sure.Jacking points are available on AllData or ask your instructor
75Engine Hoists and Transmission Jacks Other lifting devices and jacking devices consist of engine lifts and transmission jacks.The same rules apply to these. Read the manuals and have an experienced technician show you how to use them.
76Lift on Level GroundAlways lift cars on level ground; never on tilted floors or floors with different heights.Any time something "feels funny" or the balance doesn't look right, stop what you are doing and rethink the use of the tool and/or get a second opinion.
78Common Power Tool Injuries Standing in water while using electrical toolsUsing tools with worn or frayed extension cords and plugsUsing an electric tool around flammable materialsNot using protective eyewear while drilling or grindingBlowing an air nozzle close to ears
79Common Power Tool Injuries Blowing an air nozzle without protective eye wear (blow back)Blowing an air nozzle without respirator protection (asbestos on clutch parts)Clothing and jewelry catching on rotating equipment (grinders, drill presses, polishers)Using an air chisel without ear, eye, or gloves for protection
80Electrical CordsMany shops fail to check their cords for shorts that could lead to electocution.A short circuit locator can be run along cords that are used in the shop to locate shorts or open circuits.This can help improve safety and find potential hazards in cords.
81Avoiding InjuryWear the proper safety gloves, glasses, and ear protectionNever carry a tool by its cordNever yank a cord or hose to disconnect it from the receptacleDisconnect tools when:Not using themBefore servicing and cleaningWhen changing accessories such as blades, bits, and cuttersSecure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool
82Avoiding Injury [cont.] Avoid accidental starting. Do not hold fingers on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in toolFollow instructions in the user's manual for lubricating and changing accessoriesRemove all damaged portable electric tools from work area and tag them: "Do Not Use"Make sure machine guards are in place
83Missing Ground PinsNever use an electrical device where the safety ground pin has been removed !!
84Avoiding Injury [cont.] Select the right tool for the job. Don't try to make them do something they're not designed forDon't wear loose clothes, ties, jewelry, or gloves that could get caught in the machineryKeep the work area clean. Be careful of flammable materials that could catch fire if ignited by a spark from the tools
86Welding Equipment2 types of commonly used welding equipment in the auto repair tradeOxygen/Acetylene WelderMetal and Inert Gas Welder
87Oxy-Acetylene SafetyNever use an "oxy/acetylene" unit without training.The oxygen/acetylene welder has two tanks of highly compressed gases that when combined with a spark, create an amazing amount of heat in a controlled flame.Hollywood movies like "Jaws" have focused on the power of compressed gas. (Remember when the shark was blown up by the diver's compressed air tanks?)
88Oxy-Acetylene SafetyThe oxygen tank is one concern, but the really dangerous part is the highly flammable acetylene gas, which is also compressed.This is the fuel for the high energy welding or cutting torch.This is a gas which burns rapidly on its own. It's explosive! If gauges are not properly set up, if users aren't trained properly, if gas isn't turned off, and if tanks are not stored properly…the dangers are very high!
89Cylinder Storage and Transport Store cylinders in dry, ventilated areas on a fireproof floor, away from flammables or heat sourcesTransport cylinders by strapping them to carts so they don't fall or bang into each other; never drop or roll a cylinderUse cylinders only in areas with good ventilation, with nothing around that could burn or explodeKeep valves closed when cylinders are empty or not in use, and open them slowly when you have toKeep valve protection caps in place when cylinders are not in useLight flames according to manufacturer's instructions
90Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) or Wire Welders You must have the proper training and safety equipment before using a GMAW welder.
91Arc Welding HazardsEye injuries - The extreme brilliance of the light can burn the retinaSparks and Spatter - The wire welder creates little fountains of flying sparks and small amounts of molten metal spatter that can burn an unprotected person and can set tiny small fires that may not be instantly recognizableElectrical "arcing"Gold and silver rings can receive an "arc" and turn molten. This super hot molten metal can literally burn fingers offNecklaces, metal piercings (such as navel, nipple, nose, etc.) can draw an arc under the "wrong" circumstances
92Welding – Fire prevention Proper fire extinguishers should be very close to the person welding, brazing or cutting.Experienced welders always have large squirt bottles of water to cool the welded area or quench places where hot sparks or particles may have leaped.Many keep a bucket of water or hose nearby as well
93Personal Protective Equipment Trained welders always wear the correct protective clothing, especially eye and face protection, hand protection and fireproof clothing.Even shoestrings can catch fire from the hot "bee bee's" of spatter and slag that are part of the welding process.
95Respirators and Air Quality The key areas where pollution and personal risk occur usually are:Brake and clutch repair (where there may be asbestos)Auto body and refinishing (painting) and around brake and use a respiratorClosed areas where exhaust fumes may collect
96Preventing respiratory injury Understand where there are respiratory risks in the automotive workplaceGet trained on reducing these risks whenever possibleUnderstand when and how to use the right equipment (such as exhaust equipment or paint booths)Use personal protective equipment EVERY time to protect yourself (brake wash, respirators, etc.)
97Brake and Clutch WorkUse an aqueous cleaner machine to wet down brake shoes prior to disassemblyThe aqueous cleaner may also be used to wet down clutch assemblies prior to disassembly
98Exhaust Extraction Systems Carbon Monoxide [CO] can impede breathing, produce fatigue, headache, weakness, nausea, and dizziness, and at very high levels can cause death.CO is invisible and is heavier than air.In a closed space it fills up from the floor and silently moves up, much like a swimming pool filling up.
99Carbon MonoxideIf the garage door is open, the carbon monoxide tends to flow out like water.With open doors the level is usually acceptable according to OSHA regulations; however, it is still a good idea to use the exhaust extraction system just to be safe.When the garage door is closed, though, always put the hose over the car's tailpipe before working on it
100Short engine startupsThe highest levels of CO occur in the first few minutes of operation before the engine and catalytic converter warm up.Never think that running the motor “just for a few minutes” won’t hurt anything. It will!
102Operating Motor Vehicles Motor vehicle crashes are the number one cause of work related fatalities in the U.SIn the automotive industry, people are constantly moving cars on and off the street and in and out of stalls at repair facilities.Accidents can happen on the road as well as in the shop.
103When operating a vehicle: Walk Around - Prior to driving an unfamiliar vehicle, check tire condition as appropriate, and any other problem that may be visible.Identify any liability issues as well...check for dents and damage before you driveFit yourself to the car - adjust the seat so you can reach the pedals and steering wheelMake sure you can see. Adjust the mirrors and check all the windows. Do not drive with vision obscuredBuckle up before you operate any vehicleNever operate a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or prescription medicines that have a warning against driving
104Valid Driver's LicenseMost dealerships and independent repair shops require employees to prove that they have a valid driver's license.The company you work for will not allow you to operate a vehicle on public streets without a valid driver's license.If you lose your driver's license for any reason, you must notify your supervisor immediately!
106Blood Borne PathogensBlood Borne Pathogens are communicated most easily from person to person by contact with blood.Hospital workers are well informed and extremely sensitive about being infected by exposure to diseases known as "pathogens" that are carried by blood.Although not a common problem, every automotive worker will come in contact with "an incident" where they must make a decision on how to handle a blood borne pathogen.
107PathogensBlood borne pathogens such as HIV/AIDS (left) and Hepatitis B (right) can be transferred through blood.
108Likely SourcesVehicles damaged in accidents are the most likely source for blood, small pieces of tissue, or other fluids.Treat all bodily fluids as if they contain blood.
109Who is at Risk? Auto recycler (salvage) disassembler Auto body techniciansAuto body detail or cleanup specialistsInsurance claims staffsAirbag techniciansMechanics working inside accident vehicles on airbags, seat belts, steering wheels, interiors
110Examples of ExposureThree Common Examples of Potential Blood Borne Pathogen Contact:A worker gets a nasty cut and asks you to help clean and bandage the woundA co-worker who is a diabetic forgets and leaves an unprotected syringe in the restroomA co-worker bumps into a sharp edge of sheet metal which penetrates the skin
111Handling Blood or Bodily Fluids Immediately put on protective gloves and glasses before coming in contact with fluids or dried bloodTreat all bodily fluids, including dried blood residues, as if they contain bloodIf you get blood or fluids on your skin, wash thoroughly with hot soap and water as soon as possibleIf you anticipate airborne blood such as a sneeze from someone with a bloody nose, put on a surgical style particle mask or shop respirator and glasses
112Handling Contamination Clean blood with proper disinfectantsDispose of contaminated "sharp objects" including sheet metal, glass, etc., in such a way they will not come in contact again with othersSeparate contaminated clothing such as uniforms into plastic bags and label "Clothing Contains Blood" on the bagDispose of gloves by turning inside out and wrapping in a protective bag before discardingWash your hands, arms, and face thoroughly with soap and water after cleanup
113Use Gloves for CleanupFor cleaning up glass or sharp objects that may have blood, use protective nitrile type gloves UNDER work gloves.Never use protective gloves twice or try to clean them!Reusable clothing, such as washable work gloves and uniforms, should be washed, using a normal laundry cycle, according to the instructions of detergent and machine manufacturers.
114Contact of Blood With Open Cuts, Wounds For concerns over high risk contacts, an antimicrobial surgical hand scrub should be used as soon as possible.Notify your safety director and contact a doctor as soon as possible
115DisinfectantsDisinfectants kill the viruses or bacteria so they are no longer harmful. The most common are:Chlorine (common laundry bleach): Use straight out of the bottle. Again, use protective gloves and glasses, it's a strong irritant, but kills most bacteria and viruses. Corrosive to metal surfaces.Alcohols: Ethyl or isopropyl alcohol: Use straight out of the bottle. It has 75-80% alcohol concentration and is a good general purpose disinfectant.
116Methods of Sterilization or Disinfection of Vehicles On hard plastic and vinyl items, blood may be washed off with soap and water.If there is extensive dried blood, use bleach or a solution of bleach.Remember, bleach is corrosive and may stain some plastics, so experiment with a small area that does not show before wiping a large area and doing damage.Bleach WILL stain cloth interiors.If bleach damages a small area you may try a "sterilant" or "disinfectant" which may not do damage.
118Workplace AngerAfter work related automobile accidents, workplace anger is the second most likely way people die on the job.Approximately 1,000 homicides in the workplace are reported annually in the United States.
119Workplace AngerAccording to the Workplace Violence Research Institute (at OSHA), every day in the U.S. workplace there are:43,800 people harassed16,400 threats made723 people attacked2.7 people murdered
120Anger AssessmentHere are several warning signs that your anger or that of an associate is about to spill over:Separation from othersNot taking responsibility for one's actionsControlling behaviorActing one way, but talking anotherActions out of character...actions to shock othersHaving one point of view and not open to othersAddictions to gambling, alcohol, drugs
121Anger Management Options Common Results * Example – your boss yells at you for a minor mistake.OptionsCommon ResultsListen, but don't react; take deep breathsAnger temporarily resolved, remain in controlGo back to work and work harderWork anger off, be productiveThink, "Boy he's having a bad day"Wisdom - Understand that someone else is having a bad dayLoudly argue the pointProve nothing, raise blood pressure, look out of control, lose money, and run the risk of being fired
123Hazardous Chemicals and MSDS OSHA requires employers to provide their employees with detailed information and training on the chemicals they work with and keep the information where it is easy to access.MSDS Sheets should be kept in an easy to find place and all employees should know where they are.
1243 Ways Information is relayed to the user Labels on the containers of chemicalsA material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical in use at the worksite - maintained in an easily accessible locationTraining sessions on the chemicals you use on your job and how to protect yourself from being harmed by them.
125Read the Label!The label can provide a lot of useful information, such as:WarningsDirections on proper usageFirst aid information in case of exposure or an emergency
126MSDS: More In-Depth Information The material safety data sheets contain more detailed information than the labels.You should become familiar with this information BEFORE you begin working with the chemicals.Refer to the sheets to solve other problems, such as what to do in case of leakage or a spill.
127Health ExplanationsAcute or chronic effects: A chemical that is acutely toxic can injure you after a single exposure. This is different than other chemicals that may harm you after repeated or prolonged use.Route of entry: How a chemical may enter the human body - such as inhaling, swallowing, breathing or through skin absorption. The possible route of entry is important to know and helps you determine what personal protective equipment (PPE) you should use when handling the substance.
128Local or Systemic reaction: There are two ways your body can react when you are exposed to a toxic chemical. You can experience one of the reactions or both reactions at the same time.A Local reaction will occur at the site of the exposure, such as irritations or damage to the skin, eyes, or lungs.A Systemic reaction occurs when chemicals enter the bloodstream through the skin, eyes, mouth, or lungs. Your entire body can be damaged. This means your whole "system" is reacting.
129Health ExplanationsTarget organs: Organs in your body that are damaged by a systemic reaction to a hazardous chemical, such as the liver, heart, lungs or kidneysPermissible exposure limit (PEL): Some chemicals have almost no problem unless they come in contact with you for a long period of time. Soap is a good example. A common bar of soap is a group of chemicals that you use every day. However, if you hold a wet bar of soap against your skin for a long period, you may develop a rash. The Permissible Exposure Limit measurement will tell you the average amount of a chemical that you can safely be exposed to over an 8-hour period.
130Health ExplanationsCompatibility: Toward the bottom of every MSDS is a section that describes what chemicals the material should not be mixed with. For example, chlorine bleach mixed with ammonia can cause an extremely toxic gas. If you have any questions about the chemical terminology, check with your supervisor
131MSDSIf you aren't sure of chemicals or supplies, check the MSDS sheet and/or ask your direct supervisor or a knowledgeable coworker who has experience with the proper usage.
132General PrecautionsNever eat, drink, or smoke around chemicals in the work areaKeep flammable and explosive material away from any heat sourcesMake sure there is enough ventilation in the work area. If you feel the slightest amount of dizziness or nausea, report the incident immediately to your supervisor
133General PrecautionsUse the right personal protective equipment. This may include gloves, safety glasses, masks, respirators, and work clothes, depending on the type of chemicals you are using. Keep all equipment clean and report any damageKnow how to properly dispose of all contaminated materialsAlways use established procedures for handling, storing, or transporting hazardous chemicals
134Clear LabelsAll containers for chemicals should be clearly labeled with the product name, part number or ID number.They should also be labeled with the name and address of the manufacturer, importer, or distributor.This information is also available on the MSDS.
135Secondary ContainersIn some shops we buy chemicals in bulk, but we pour them into smaller containers to use them, and we don't label the second container.Whenever a chemical is dispensed from its original container into a secondary container, the secondary container must be labeled to show the product's name and information.
136Secondary ContainersSome containers can have leftover residue that could still cause harm or be dangerous.When original containers or secondary containers have been emptied of usable material, they should be drained, emptied, and cleaned as appropriate for reuse or disposal.
138High voltage electrical testing An orange wiring harness cover indicates high voltage conductorsDo not disconnect or test and wires that are inside an orange harness cover until the high voltage system has been shut down
139High voltage electrical testing When testing electrical components of a hybrid or EV high voltage rubber gloves must be wornLeather glove covers should be worn over the rubber glovesCAT 3 rated test leads are also required